This article presents measurements of the thickness of alcohol-based coatings on sand foundry cores and moulds. These coatings were applied using two methods, the dipping method and the painting method. For the purposes of the study, a zircon alcohol-based coating was prepared with three different levels of nominal viscosity; very thin at 10s, average at 20s, and thick at 30s. The coating was applied to a core made of quartz sand and furan resin. The cores were made of sand with three different grain sizes; dL = 0.22 mm – fine sand, dL = 0.33 mm medium sand, and dL = 0.47 mm coarse sand. In the study, the thickness of the coating obtained to the core was measured immediately after application as well as after drying. Additionally, the extent of penetration into the intergranular spaces of the core matrix was measured. On the basis of this study, the impact of the grain size of the core matrix on the thickness of the coating and its penetration into the core was assessed. The thickness of coatings obtained using different application methods was also assessed.
The influence of the refractory coating which is a mixture of silica flour and kaolin on the surface roughness of the plate castings produced using evaporative patterns had been considered in this work. The kaolin was used as a binder and ratio method was employed to form basis for the factorial design of experiment which led to nine runs of experiments. Methyl alcohol at 99% concentration was used as the carrier for the transfer of the coating to the surface of the patterns. Pouring temperature was observed as a process parameter alongside the mix ratios of the coating. Attempts were made to characterize the refractory coating by using two methods; differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Attempt was also made to characterize the casting material. Gating system design was done for the plate casting to determine the correct proportions of the gating parameters in order to construct the gating system properly to avoid turbulence during pouring of liquid metal. A digital profilometer was used to take the measurements of the surface roughness. It was observed that the mix ratio 90% silica flour-10% kaolin produced the lowest value of the surface roughness of the plate castings and had the lowest material loss in the DTA test. The pouring temperature of 650o C produced best casting.
The subject of this paper was to compare the influence of selected coatings on bending strength of moulds and cores manufactured in a furan technology. In a range of study, there were used three kinds of coatings - water based coating and two kind of alcohol based coating manufactured by FOSECO. Coating were applicated by brush, overpouring/flow and spraying. For each application method, there were realized different kind of drying- at ambient temperature, in a furnace and by burning. Physicochemical properties of coatings were such selected to accommodate them to the application method and type of coating. Based on the conducted studies it was observed that for water based coating application method doesn’t have an important influence on bending strength and it is necessary to optimize the time and temperature of drying to achieve better results of bending strength. For alcohol based coatings, drying by burning causes significant deterioration of bending strength of the mould and core and drying process at ambient allows to obtain high bending strength of mould/cores in regard to time of drying.
The article presents analysis of the influence of ingate size on the Lost Foam casting process. In particular, analysis of simulation tests has been carried out to determine the ingate size influence on the rate of filling of the mould cavity, pressure in the gas gap and size of the gas gap. A specially prepared mathematical model of the process and an original calculation algorithm were used in simulation tests of full-mould casting. The tests have indicated that the increase of the ingate size results in the increase of filling rate and increase of pressure of gases in the gas gap. However, significant influence on mould cavity filling occurs only when the ingate size is less than ~1 cm2. .
Al-4.5Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries due to their low weight and high mechanical properties. This group of aluminium alloys is known as 2xx series and exhibits the highest mechanical properties however this alloy is known to suffer from feedability and high tendency for hot tearing. Al-Si alloys (3xx) have improved fluidity and better feedability particularly by several modifications such as Ti, B or Sr. Eutectic temperature is decreased and mechanical properties can be enhanced. Yet, the strength values of this alloy group cannot reach the values of 2xx series. Therefore, in this study, the effect of Ag addition on the fluidity of Al-4.5Cu alloy has been investigated. Standard size spiral mould was used. The casting temperature was selected to be 770oC. Five castings were made and Weibull statistical approach was used to evaluate the results. In addition, coating of the die with BN was also investigated. It was found that Ag addition and BN coating of the die revealed the most reproducible, reliable and high fluidity values.
Detection and identification of toxic environmental gases have assumed paramount importance precisely in the defense, industrial and civilian security sector. Numerous methods have been developed for the sensing of toxic gases in the environment ever since surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology came into existence. Such SAW sensors called electronic nose (E-Nose) sensor use the frequency response of a delay line/resonator. SAW device is focused and given importance. The selective coating between input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs) in the SAW device is responsible for corresponding changes in operating frequency of the device for a specific gas/vapour absorbed from the environment. A suitable combination of well-designed SAW delay lines with selective coatings not only help to improve sensor sensitivity and selectivity but also leads to the minimization of false frequency alarms in the E-Nose sensor. This article presents a comprehensive review of design, development, simulation and modelling of a SAW sensor for potential sensing of toxic environmental gases.
Studies were conducted on a zinc coating produced on the surface of ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-7 to determine the eutectic grain effect. For this purpose, castings with a wall thickness of 5 to 30 mm were made and the resulting structure was examined. To obtain a homogeneous metal matrix, samples were subjected to a ferritising annealing treatment. To enlarge the reaction surface, the top layer was removed from casting by machining. Then hot dip galvanising treatment was performed at 450°C to capture the kinetics of growth of the zinc coating (in the period from 60 to 600 seconds). Analysing the test results it was found that within the same time of hot dip galvanising, the differences in the resulting zinc coating thickness on samples taken from castings with different wall cross-sections were small but could, particularly for shorter times of treatment, reduce the continuity of the alloyed layer of the zinc coating.
The paper discusses the possibility of improving resistance of heat exchangers made of gray cast iron with flake graphite to hightemperature corrosion by providing them with metallic coatings. A metallic coating containing 76.9% Ni, 19.8% Cr, 1.7% Si, 0.9% Fe, and 0.9% Mn was applied by means of the plasma spraying method and subjected to cyclically variable thermal loads in the atmosphere of solid fuels combustion products (oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and sodium). In a 30-day thermal load test held at temperature 500°C it has been found that thickness of the metallic coating decreased from the initial (240 ± 6) μm to (231 ± 6) μm. The depth to which sulfur, chlorine, and sodium penetrated the coating was about 30 μm. Increased oxygen content occurred along the whole coating depth. In the coating area adjacent to the substrate surface, the content was twice as high compared to this observed in the initial coating material. Although presence of oxygen was found within the whole depth of the coating, i.e. (231 ± 6) μm, no signs of susceptibility of the sprayed metallic layer to separation from substrate of gray cast iron with flake graphite were found.
The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T) and GX39Cr13 (LH14). The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10) and Cr (GX39Cr13). The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.
The paper deals with the issue of potential for improvement of resistance of wood chip fine grinders to abrasive wear by providing them with WCCoCr coating applied with the use of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The study focused on establishing parameters of the technological process of spraying a 250–270 μm thick coating onto surface of ductile cast iron castings used to date as grinder linings. The presented data include results of microstructure examination, chemical composition analysis, HV hardness measurements, and scratch tests for both previous and new variant of linings. The obtained scratch test results indicate that the material of the coating is characterized with definitely lower susceptibility to scratching. The scratch made on coating was 75–84 μm wide and 7.2–8.2 μm deep, while the scratch on cast iron was distinctly wider (200–220 μm) and deeper (8.5–12.8 μm). In case of cast iron, the range of variability in scratch width and depth was definitely larger. This can be explained with large difference in hardness of individual components of microstructure of cast iron and significantly larger plastic deformation of cast iron compared to the coating revealed in the course of indenter motion over surfaces of the two materials. It has been found that application of WCCoCr coating offered better resistance of lining surfaces to scratching which can be considered a rationale for undertaking in-service tests.
A short literature survey which justifies coating of ceramic cutting inserts is presented. The results reported are on selected nitride coatings, in particular nanoscale multilayer, with layers of type Ti-Zr-N, TiN, ZrN and (TiAl)N, deposited by the arc PVD method on oxidecarbide ceramic cutting inserts of type TACN and TW2 produced at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Measurements and quality assessments were made, including of thickness of the coatings and of their constituent micro and nanolayers, microhardness of the coating and of the substrate, surface roughness of the inserts and of the cylindrical workpieces turned with these tools. Lifetimes of the coated and uncoated inserts were compared in turning an alloy tool steel. A significant increase in lifetime of the coated TW2 cutting tools was shown.
Pulsed laser deposition technique was applied for covering elastic cast-polyurethane membranes with titanium nitride and boron nitride layers. The deposition process was realized using a Nd:YAG laser with Qswitch in stages; firstly the membranes were coated with ultra-thin titanium nitride layer (TixN) by evaporation of a metallic titanium disk in nitrogen gas atmosphere and then a layer of boron nitride (BN) was deposited by ablation of hexagonal h-BN target in argon atmosphere. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The phase analysis was performed by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The crystallographic texture was measured. The wear test was performed by pin-on-disk method. Hexagonal boron nitride layers with (0001)[uvtw] texture with flake-like grains were fabricated. The structure and texture of boron nitride was identical irrespectively of substrate roughness or BN thickness. Pin-on-disk wear tests showed that the coatings effectively decreased the friction coefficient from two to even four times comparing to pure polyurethane and polyurethane covered with graphite. This proved that deposited layers can replace graphite as a lubricating material used to protect polymer surfaces.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the most widely used solid lubricants applied in different ways on the surfaces under friction. In this work, AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was coated with MoS2, using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at four different temperatures (400, 500, 600 and 700°C). Coatings properties were investigated using SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR, Hardness Tester and Roughness tester. The results showed that with simultaneous evaporation of sulfur and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) in the CVD chamber, a uniform coating layer containing MoS2 and MoO2 phases was formed. Increase in the substrate temperature resulted in the rise in the amount of MoS2 to MoO2 phases. The thickness, grain size and the hardness of the coating were 17-29 μm, 50-120 nm and 260-480 HV respectively. Friction tests carried out using pin-on-plate method under normal loads of 10 N under ambient conditions showed values of the friction coefficient 0.25-0.40.
In this study T6 heat treated 6063 aluminum alloys were used as substrate material. In order to form a bond between the substrate and the main coating, all samples were coated with Ni-Cr-Al powders. 8 wt% Yttria Stabilized Zirconia powders (YSZ) were coated with plasma spray technique. Thickness of YSZ was 150 m and bond coating was 36 m. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses were performed to characterize the coating layers. These YSZ coated and uncoated samples were subjected to wear testing under different spindle speed, loading and working distance. Wear test results were compared with the kinetic friction coefficients and weight loss values. Wear marks on YSZ coated and uncoated samples were investigated by SEM analysis. By coating with plasma spray technique, the wear resistance of Al alloys was increased without changing the friction coefficient. It was found that spindle speed had significant effect over the wear properties than the load applied. By YSZ coating, wear properties were increased 10 times.
Particles of the Fe-Al type (less than 50 µm in diameter) were sprayed onto the 045 steel substrate by means of the detonation method. The TEM, SAED and EDX analyses revealed that the Fe-Al particles have been partially melted in the experiment of coating formation. Particle undergone melting even within about 80% of its volume. Therefore, solidification of the melted part of particles was expected. Solidification differed significantly due to a large range of chemical composition of applied particles (from 15 at.% Al up to 63 at.% Al). A single particle containing 63 at.% Al was subjected to the detailed analysis, only. The TEM / SAED techniques revealed in the solidified part of particle three sub-layers: an amorphous phase, A ε , periodically situated FeAl + Fe2Al5 phases, and a non-equilibrium phase, Nε . A hypothesis dealing with the inter-metallic phases formation in such a single particle of the nominal composition 0 N = 0.63 is presented. At first, the solid / liquid system is treated as an interconnection: substrate liquid nonmelted particle part / / . Therefore, it is suggested that the solidification occurs simultaneously in two directions: towards a substrate and towards a non-melted part of particle. The solidification mechanism is referred to the Fe-Al meta-stable phase diagram. It is shown that the melted part of particle solidifies rapidly according to the phase diagram of meta-stable equilibrium and at a significant deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium.
This study attempted to manufacture an Y2O3 ceramic coating layer on a ceramic (AlN) substrate using aerosol deposition (AD) and investigated its macroscopic properties. Pure Y2O3 powder with a polygonal shape and average size of 5.0 μm was used as initial feedstock. Using aerosol deposition with suitable process conditions, an Y2O3 coating layer was successfully fabricated on aluminum nitride (AIN). The thickness of the manufactured coating layer was approximately 10 mm. The coating layer consisted of Y2O3 phase identical to that in the initial powder, and no additional oxides were identified. In regard to the roughness of the Y2O3 coating layer, the average roughness (Ra) measured 1.32 μm, indicating that the surface roughness was relatively even compared to the initial powder size (5 μm). Mechanical properties of the Y2O3 coating layer were measured using nano indentation equipment, and the indentation modulus of the Y2O3 coating layer fabricated by aerosol deposition measured 136.5 GPa. The interface of the coating layer was observed using TEM, and the deposition mechanism of the Y2O3 coating layer manufactured by aerosol deposition was also discussed.
GZO/IZO semiconductor thin films were prepared on the ITO substrate via sol-gel spin coating method for using in the dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For this purpose, GZO and IZO thin films were optimized by the percentage of doping gallium and indium in zinc oxide and were studied their electrical, optical and structural properties. After that, the layers with the best performance were selected for use in the DSSCs. The concentration of all solutions for spin coating processes was 0.1 M and zinc oxide has been doped with gallium and indium, with different doping percentages (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 volume percentage). So, by studying the properties of the fabricated thin films, it was found the films with 0.5%GZO and 0.5%IZO have the best performance and hence, the optimized dual-layer (0.5% GZO/0.5% IZO (GIZO)) were prepared and studied their electrical and optical properties. The synthesized optimized dual-layer film was successfully used as the working electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The sample with 0.5%IZO shows the 9.1 mA/cm2 short-circuit current density, 0.52 V open circuit voltage, 63% fill factor and 2.98% efficiency.
Nanostructured, biocompatible, TiC/Ti Supersonic Cold Gas Sprayed coatings were deposited onto a Ti6Al4V alloy and their microstructure, wear resistance and hardness were investigated. The starting nanostructured powder, containing a varied mixture of Ti and TiC particles, was produced by high energy ball milling. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used for structural and chemical analyses of powder particles and coatings. Coatings, 250-350 μm thick, preserving the nanostructure and chemical powder composition, with low porosity and relatively high hardness (~850 HV), were obtained. These nanostructured TiC/Ti coatings exhibited better tribological properties than commonly used biomedical benchmark materials, due to an appropriate balance of hard and soft nano-phases.
The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showed a heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at 450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds). Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived. Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.
The paper described properties of electro-spark deposited coatings under influence of the laser treatment process. The properties were assessed by analyzing the coating microstructure, X-ray radiation, microhardness, bonding strength, corrosion resistance, porosity and wear tests. The tests were conducted for Mo and Cu coatings (the anode) which were electro-spark deposited over the C45 steel substrate (the cathode) and melted with a laser beam. The coatings were deposited by means of an ELFA-541. The laser processing was performed with an Nd:YAG laser. The coatings after laser processing are still distinguished by very good performance properties, which make them suitable for use in sliding friction pairs.
In this work, three ceramic composite coatings Al2O3-3TiO2 C, Al2O3-13TiO2 C, and Al2O3-13TiO2 N were plasma sprayed on steel substrates. They were deposited with two conventional powders differing the volume fraction of TiO2 and nanostructured powder. The mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings were investigated and compared. The increase in TiO2 content from 3 wt.% to 13 wt.% in the conventional feedstock improved the mechanical properties and abrasion resistance of coatings. However, the size of the used powder grains had a much stronger influence on the properties of deposited coatings than the content of the titania phase. The Al2O3-13TiO2 coating obtained from nanostructured powder revealed significantly better properties than that plasma sprayed using conventional powder, i.e. 22% higher microhardness, 19% lower friction coefficient, and over twice as good abrasive wear resistance. In turn, the Al2O3-13TiO2 conventional coating showed an increase in microhardness and abrasive wear resistance, 36% and 43%, respectively, and 6% higher coefficient of friction compared to the Al2O3-3TiO2 conventional coating.
Achieving control of coating thickness in foundry moulds is needed in order to guarantee uniform properties of the mould but also to achieve control of drying time. Since drying time of water based coatings is heavily dependent on the amount of water present in the coating layer, a stable coating process is prerequisite for a stable drying process. In this study, we analyse the effect of different variables on the coating layer properties. We start by considering four critical variables identified in a previous study such as sand compaction, coating density, dipping time and gravity and then we add centre points to the original experimental plans to identify possible non-linear effects and variation in process stability. Finally, we investigate the relation between coating penetration (a variable that is relatively simple to measure in production) and other coating layer thickness properties (relevant for the drying process design). Correlations are found and equations are provided. In particular it is found that water thickness can be directly correlated to penetration with a simple linear equation and without the need to account for other variables.