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Abstract

Port cities are having diff erent spatial structure than those located inlands. As a result of their seaside location, they face specifi c administrative and functional problems on a daily basis. In the economic and settlement structure of the country, they usually play the role of a “gate” through which streams of cargo are distributed further over the whole hinterland. It is the transport and logistics function of port cities, as well as the water bodies located in their area, that determine their spatial character to the greatest extent. The confi guration of the two above- mentioned factors, together with other development conditions, determines the model of spatial changes taking place in port cities. Additionally, evolving shipping technologies aff ect the contemporary development of the ports’ and port cities’ spatial structure.
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Abstract

BIM (Building Information Modelling) is a tool and technology closely related to the planning, design, implementation and management of construction investments – both at the level of a building, as well as infrastructure or civil engineering. It combines advanced spatial modeling (using virtual representations of building elements) with management of information at every level, from the modelling of building’s components, through complex interactions between these elements, to the description of building processes and the behavior of users of the building. This is just a part of many possibilities, the full application depends only on the needs and skills of the system user. Construction dependencies are set at the level of the IFC (Industry Foundation Class) universal standard IFC, its syntax allows to describe not only the physical structure of the object, but also their mutual interactions. This is done in a hierarchical way, i.e. from the superior element there are subsequent, lower-level elements and interactions. So how can this tool be used in urban revitalization? The basic problem here is the excess of information related to and contained in the virtual model. In urban planning and design, most of this data is unnecessary. On the other hand, the data contained in the GIS (Geographic Information System) models, despite correlation with external databases, are insufficient. Basic location data, technical conditions of facilities and infrastructure, property dependencies are not enough to obtain a full picture of the urban space. The solution to the problem of linking these systems is CIM (City Information Modeling). It combines the description of an object derived from IFC with database support at the level of GIS systems. Such a broad approach allows for placing enough information in one virtual space for designing, modeling and analyzing urban space. The article is an attempt to demonstrate what conditions must be met by the CIM system, to extend its functionality to issues related to the revitalization of urban areas: whether and how the information contained in the spatial model can be used to determine the rules for the revitalization of space at the urban level?
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Abstract

The article presents the concept of intelligent city. Cities are unquestionably central to many topics in economics and regional science: the business location, the driving forces for business, the economic growth factors, externalities and amenities, knowledge spillovers and knowledge hubs. But what, exactly, is city in this context. This paper argues that today city should be seen more as an intelligent economic system allowing the utilisation of economic and public value than a technology- rich and smartly managed place. Thinking about cities through this particular lens allows insights from a variety of fields – including public services analysis in urban economics, regional science studies and business studies in economic geography – to be applied. This opens new approaches to issues such as institutional and territorial origins of governance processes.
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Abstract

The article highlights the issues of the quality of the newly developed residential areas in Stockholm, in the times of one of the most development intense times in the history of the city. The city of Stockholm has a population of ca. one million residents today and is one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. The high increase in population numbers, high birth rate and strong economy have been the main factors contributing to the rapid city growth. The urgent need for new houses has been addressed by Stockholm’s politicians with an ambitious housing programme. The housing shortage together with the city´s booming economy and actively applied planning policies have created challenges for the decision makers and for the city planners. Most of Stockholm´s new residential areas are being planned outside the city centre which requires a revised approach to the character of the planned spaces and to their density. However, the issues of the quality of the currently planned and built areas are being raised more and more often. Not only the architectural quality has been discussed, but also the scale, structure typologies, the quality of the functional and spatial programmes and that of public spaces. A planning model that has been applied in Stockholm for several years is based on a close co-operation between the city´s planning administration bodies and private investors. A critical element of this kind of a planning model is a strong vision for the city´s future development. The city’s planning administration bodies assure an applicable guidance throughout the planning process. Analysis and conclusions presented in the article are based on practice at planning and administration bodies in Stockholm and in the region of Stockholm in the years 2005-2018.
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Abstract

City is a formal expression of social relations. It is a kind of ethos and dreams connected with history and identity of individuals. It is a structure with thousands of meanings. The opportunities it creates can lead to an outstanding civilization. At the same time it reveals all negative aspects of living. City is a collection of separate individuals combined with common perception of spatial affi liation and identity development. It is worth writing about city because despite its well-defi ned value it is an elusive being. In spite of being a kind of collective needs it is still on the move, transforms all the time reflecting human emotions. Existence of city as a phenomena itself is a symbol of realization of people’s most basic needs and the history of its development shows growing complication and diversification of expectations related to it. City along with is diversity reflects human beings of a particular time. It is a spotlight in which both successes and failures of communities and individuals in each epoch can be seen. Thanks to its interdisciplinary character it can be perceived as multidimensional place. It is a multifaceted organism with high hopes and unlimited opportunities. Differences in perception which are due to a number of its users results in a wide range of problems and expectations. Expectations of local communities and individuals of a whole city vary. As a result, what we call a city landscape must be very vague and differs depending on a particular field which is taken into consideration. The number of opportunities and city-related issues is infi nite. In the dissertation below, however, three factors are the crucial ones: structure, meaning and city phenomena as a landscape. Thanks to the interpretation of model and genius loci as well as defining social expectations we have managed to conceive the phenomena of spatial identity. We have decided on this method referring directly to the concept of landscape. City is in here widely defined between urban aspects of landscape and city landscape. We have tried to understand what city is in terms of landscape, where it comes from and where it goes to. It is a trial of translation the Gaugin’s method: where are we from? Who are we? Where are we going to? into the language of present perception of some particular aspects of town planning. We live at times of the unprecedented technological change which is followed by a social change. It all must have an impact on how city is perceived, what it looks like, how it is to live there and what it is going to be like – what the future has in store. We have tried to bring the reader’s attention to the problems and issues which had appeared before the advent of reality we live in. We have focused on what may have led to a kind of city crisis at the edge of 19th and 20th centuries and some radical solutions trying to overcome the arisen problems and its consequences today. Both its pompous character and sentimentalism of town planning and architecture in the early 20th century have made us be bored with form which is felt in many parts of the world even today. Another aspect of our work covers understanding city in social terms as well as contemporary and future solutions. We are of the opinion it is worth asking questions referring to the future and at the same time regarding its current state and recent past. It is commendable to look for particular tools and solutions. Three dimensions which are covered by the book are figurative. Structure – which is everything we perceive as a kind of a template, identifi cation – we assign to city. It is responsible for recognition, adaptation to some forms by which we defi ne space. Meaning is a step forward. While the structure’s equivalent is „I can see”, the meaning equals to „I know”. Meaning does not exist as a city without structure just like structure does not exist without meaning. Things don’t just exist, they have some characteristics and purpose and it refers to trees, buildings and all other urban elements constituting city in all steady and temporary aspects and time dimensions. Meaning is also interpretation and emotion regarding both community and individual. It is the answer to the question „why?” Some particular places and spaces are linked to some particular values which identify them. This system of values is a must to be able to interpret what space we are dealing with and its diagnosis. Meaning is very much about social aspect too. It has to do with perception and remembering city and it is connected with knowledge, tradition and culture of places. Another aspect linked to relations in city landscape combines other aspects and constitutes something to which city refers to. Phenomena is contribution and verifi cation. The way city works is fundamental to all city residents and users. A key to such understanding a city is the term of genius loci. By singling out objects, order, time, character and light we are able to widely identify essence of space and particular places. The graphic model by Panofsky acts here as a verifying tool. City landscape as a form is of great importance here. The sense of beauty is as essential as the way the city works. Social perception of city is not only shaped by the way it is used, but also by the fact what city is like and how it is perceived. Spatial order is an incredibly important factor understood here as everything what accommodates vaguely defi ned beauty and what is connected with its particular structure, history and identity. All these factors contribute to the value of city landscape. When it comes to city landscape studies social aspect is emphasized by the impact of humanities, especially sociology, which perfectly shows expectations related to space. Cities are built and seen in the context of particular tradition, culture and history. Their skyline and ways of functioning are embedded in mentalities of societies which they represent. Despite their diversity from the global point of view they are susceptible to similar trends resulting in crisis or prosperity periods. They are economic archetypes of success.
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