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Abstract

China has experienced the rapid emergence and development of private higher education in the recent decades. This article focuses on the current situation in several key areas, such as development of non-state education, globalization influence at chinse non-state education and social stratification in this sector. It shows regional diversity and random planning in private higher education and also stress situation low-income groups. Moreover it presents acquisition of labour market qualification by mentioned groups. This study concludes that proper financing and management in an urgent thing to do and in the future it will benefit from to Chinese society through multiple roles.
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Abstract

The Silurian fishes from north-western Hunan, China are characterised by the earliest known galeaspids Dayongaspis Pan and Zeng, 1985 and Konoceraspis Pan, 1992, and the earliest known antiarch Shimenolepis Wang J.-Q., 1991, as well as rich sinacanth fin spines. Shimenolepis from Lixian County in north-western Hunan, which was dated as the Telychian (late Llandovery), has long been regarded as the oldest representative of the placoderms in the world. As such, in addition to eastern Yunnan and the Lower Yangtze Region, north-western Hunan represents another important area in South China that yields important fossil material for the research of early vertebrates and related stratigraphy. Here we summarise the Silurian fishes known in north-western Hunan so far, and classify them into three vertebrate assemblages (i.e., the Wentang, Maoshan, and Yangtze assemblages). Based on the updated Silurian vertebrate and stratigraphic databases, the Silurian fish-bearing strata in north-western Hunan can be subdivided into the Rongxi, Huixingshao, and Xiaoxi formations in ascending chronological order, which can be correlated with the Lower Red Beds, the Upper Red Beds, and the Ludlow Red Beds in South China, respectively. A new look at the Silurian strata in Lixian suggests that the age of Shimenolepis is late Ludlow rather than late Llandovery as previously suggested. The research on Silurian fishes and biostratigraphy in north-western Hunan not only provides morphological data of early vertebrates, but also offers new palaeoichthyological evidence for the subdivision, correlation, and age assignment of the Silurian marine red beds in South China. The establishment of a related high-precision Silurian stratigraphic framework in north-western Hunan will help to elucidate the temporal and spatial distribution of Silurian fossil fishes, deepen the understanding of the evolution of early vertebrates, and unravel the coevolution between Silurian vertebrates and the palaeoenvironment.
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Abstract

The shipping noise near channels and ports is an important contribution to the ambient noise level, and the depth of these sites is often less than 100 m. However less attention has been paid to the measurement in shallow water environments (Brooker, Humphrey, 2016). This paper presents extensive measurements made on the URN (underwater radiated noise) of a small fishing boat in the South China Sea with 87 m depth. The URN data showed that the noise below 30 Hz was dominated by the background noise. The transmission loss (TL) was modelled with FEM (finite element method) and ray tracing according to the realistic environmental parameters in situ. The discrepancy between the modelled results and the results using simple law demonstrates both sea surface and bottom have significant effect on TL for the shallow water, especially at low frequencies. Inspired by the modelling methodology in AQUO (Achieve QUieter Oceans) project (Audoly et al., 2015), a predicted model applied to a typical fishing boat was built, which showed that the URN at frequencies below and above 100 Hz was dominated by non-cavitation propeller noise and mechanical noise, respectively. The agreement between predicted results and measured results also demonstrates that this modelling methodology is effective to some extent.
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