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Abstract

The main reason of a cavitational destruction is the mechanical action of cavitation pulses onto the material’s surface. The course of cavitation destruction process is very complex and depends on the physicochemical and structural features of a material. A resistance to cavitation destruction of the material increases with the increase of its mechanical strength, fatigue resistance as well as hardness. Nevertheless, the effect of structural features on the material’s cavitational resistance has been not fully clarified. In the present paper, the cavitation destruction of ZnAl4 as cast alloy was investigated on three laboratory stands: vibration, jet-impact and flow stands. The destruction mechanism of ZnAl4 as cast alloy subjected to cavitational erosion using various laboratory stands is shown in the present paper.
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Abstract

The paper deals with susceptibility of nodular cast iron with ferritic -pearlitic matrix on cavitation erosion . Cavitation tests were carried out with the use of a cavitation erosion vibratory apparatus employing a vibration exciter operated at frequency of 20 kHz. The study allowed to determine the sequence of subsequent stages in which microstr ucture of cast iron in superficial regions is subject to degradation. The first features to be damaged are graphite precipitates. The ferritic matrix of the alloy turned out to be definitely less resistant to cavitation erosion compared to the pearlitic matrix component.
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Abstract

A common problem encountered in hydraulic valves is a progressing deterioration of tightness of their water flow cutting-off seats. The seats are provided usually with a copper-alloy insert joined mechanically with cast-iron valve housing. The problem of unreliability of such joints can be solved by providing surface of the seat with a coating, deposited with the use of HVOF method and resistant to abrasive and cavitation wear. The tests were carried out for a sealing-draining seat insert made of CuZn39Pb2Al brass used to date and a specimen taken from the cast-iron valve housing which was the substrate for a plasma-sprayed coating of powder containing 86.1% Cr, 7.2% Ni, and 6.7% C. The coating, 345 ± 15 μm thick, was characterized with good quality of bonding with cast-iron substrate and high compactness of the material. The cavitation wear test on materials used in the study were carried out with the use of Vibra-Cell ultrasonic liquid processor (Sonics) equipped with a piezoelectric probe operating at the frequency of 20 kHz. Based on profilograms taken along a line crossing centers of cavitation craters, measurements of the height parameter Rt, and microscopic observations of surfaces it has been found that the coating plasma-sprayed onto substrate of nodular cast iron demonstrated higher resistance to cavitation compared to copper-alloy inserts used so far in cast-iron hydraulic valves. Cavitation craters on the material used typically for valve seats to date were more distinctly outlined and deeper compared to craters observed on the coating. Larger were also sizes of local tear-outs which resulted in larger difference between the peaks line and the valleys line.
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