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Abstrakt

Technologia CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) jest jedną z metod ograniczających emisję ditleku węgla do atmosfery. Jednak wysokie koszty wychwytywania CO2 w tej technologii są główną przeszkodą wdrażania tego rozwiązania przez elektrownie. Redukcji kosztów oczekuje się przede wszystkim po stronie wychwytywania i oddzielania CO2 z gazów spalinowych (przemysłowych). Artykuł przedstawia ocenę efektywności finansowej najpopularniejszej technologii aminowej (MEA) względem otrzymywanego z popiołów lotnych materiału mezoporowatego typu MCM-41 impregnowanego polietylenoiminą (PEI) dla instalacji CCS. Badania prowadzono dla inwestycji obejmującej trzy kluczowe komponenty stanowiące pełny łańcuch wartości w procesie walidacji technologii CCS (wychwytywanie, transport i składowanie). Prowadzone badania mineralogiczne i określenie właściwości fizykochemicznych produktu mezoporowatego otrzymywanego z materiałów odpadowych, jakimi są popioły lotne, pozwoliły na wskazanie najlepszej klasy sorbentu – MCM-41 impregnowanego PEI, który można wykorzystać w technologiach wychwytywania CO2. O pracowanie innowacyjnego związku pozwala nie tylko na usuniecie 100% CO2, ale również obniża koszty operacyjne (OPEX), w tym przede wszystkim koszty zużycia energii o 40% i materiałów w stosunku do mieszanek aminowych np. MEA.
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Abstrakt

CO2 emission from combustion fossil fuels is considered as the primary factor in the global warming. Different methods for separation CO2 from combustion flue gases are extensively used across the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the most important technological solutions of CO2 separation. For this reason chemical absorption, physical absorption, adsorption approach, membrane filtration and cryogenic process were researched. Concluding, selection of the right method for carbon dioxide capture separation is a complex issue and a range of technological and economic factors should be taken into consideration prior to application on the industrial scale.
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Słowa kluczowe CO2 capture MEA AMP PZ

Abstrakt

This paper provides a discussion concerning results of CO2 removal from a gas mixture by the application of aqueous solutions of ethanoloamine (MEA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) promoted with piperazine (PZ). The studies were conducted using a process development unit. Research of such a scale provides far more reliable representation of the actual industrial process than modelling and laboratory tests. The studies comprised comparative analyses entailing identical energy supplied to a reboiler as well as tests conducted at similar process efficiencies for both solvents. The results thus obtained imply that using AMP/PZ enables reduction of the solvent heat duty. Moreover, while using AMP/PZ temperature decrease was also observed in the columns.
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Abstrakt

Results are presented concerning the separation of the mixtures of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen in membrane modules with modified polysulphone or polyimide as active layers. The feed gas was a mixture with composition corresponding to that of a stream leaving stage 1 of a hybrid adsorptivemembrane process for the removal of CO2 from dry flue gas. In gas streams containing 70 vol.% of CO2, O2 content was varied between 0 and 5 vol.%. It is found that the presence of oxygen in the feed gas lowers the purity of the product CO2 in all the modules studied, while the recovery depends on the module. In the PRISM module (Air Products) an increase in O2 feed concentration, for the maximum permeate purity, led to a rise in CO2 recovery, whereas for the UBE modules the recovery did not change.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents the basic input data and modelling results of IGCC system with membrane CO2 capture installation and without capture. The models were built using commercial software (Aspen and GateCycle) and with the use of authors’ own computational codes. The main parameters of the systems were calculated, such as gross and net power, auxiliary power of individual installations and efficiencies. The models were used for the economic and ecological analysis of the systems. The Break Even Point method of analysis was used. The calculations took into account the EU emissions trading scheme. Sensitivity analysis on the influence of selected quantities on break-even price of electricity was performed
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Abstrakt

In the study an accurate energy and economic analysis of the carbon capture installation was carried out. Chemical absorption with the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia was adopted as the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gases. The energy analysis was performed using a commercial software package to analyze the chemical processes. In the case of MEA, the demand for regeneration heat was about 3.5 MJ/kg of CO2, whereas for ammonia it totalled 2 MJ/kg CO2. The economic analysis was based on the net present value (NPV) method. The limit price for CO2emissions allowances at which the investment project becomes profitable (NPV = 0) was more than 160 PLN/Mg for MEA and less than 150 PLN/Mg for ammonia. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to determine the limit price of CO2emissions allowances depending on electricity generation costs at different values of investment expenditures.
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Abstrakt

The paper deals with the computational fluid dynamics modelling of carbon dioxide capture from flue gases in the post combustioncapture method, one of the available carbon capture and storage technologies. 30% aqueous monoethanolamine solution was used as a solvent in absorption process. The complex flow system including multiphase countercurrent streams with chemical reaction and heat transfer was considered to resolve the CO2 absorption. The simulation results have shown the realistic behaviour and good consistency with experimental data. The model was employed to analyse the influence of liquid to gas ratio on CO2 capture efficiency.
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Abstrakt

The paper is devoted to explication of one of the advantages of heat and electricity cogeneration, rarely considered in technical literature. Usually attention is paid to the fact that heat losses of the heat distribution network are less severe in the case of cogeneration of heat in comparison with its separate production. But this conclusion is also true in other cases when the internal consumption of heat is significant. In this paper it has been proved in the case of two examples concerning trigeneration technology with an absorption chiller cooperating with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant and CHP plant integrated with amine post-combustion CO2processing unit. In both considered cases it might be said that thanks to cogeneration we have to do with less severe consequences of significant demand of heat for internal purposes.
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Abstrakt

HY2SEPS was an EU-funded project directed at the reduction of CO2 emissions. The principal objective of the project was to develop a hybrid membrane-adsorptive H2/CO2 separation technique that would form an integral element of the pre-combustion process. Specific tasks included the derivation of simplified mathematical models for the membrane separation of H2/CO2 mixtures. In the present study one of the developed models is discussed in detail, namely that with the countercurrent plug flow of the feed and the permeate. A number of simulations were carried out concerning the separation of binary mixtures that may appear following steam conversion of methane. The numerical results were then compared with the experimental data obtained by FORTH/ICEHT. The estimated fluxes of pure CO2, H2, CH4 and N2 are shown alongside those measured experimentally as a function of temperature and CO2 partial pressure in Figs 2 - 7. It is concluded that, in general, CO2 flux increases monotonically with both temperature and CO2 partial pressure. It is also found that the fluxes of hydrogen, methane and nitrogen reach a minimum at a temperature slightly above 323 K. Overall, a good agreement was obtained between the simulations and experiments.
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Abstrakt

This paper presents the parameters of the reference oxy combustion block operating with supercritical steam parameters, equipped with an air separation unit and a carbon dioxide capture and compression installation. The possibility to recover the heat in the analyzed power plant is discussed. The decision variables and the thermodynamic functions for the optimization algorithm were identified. The principles of operation of genetic algorithm and methodology of conducted calculations are presented. The sensitivity analysis was performed for the best solutions to determine the effects of the selected variables on the power and efficiency of the unit. Optimization of the heat recovery from the air separation unit, flue gas condition and CO2 capture and compression installation using genetic algorithm was designed to replace the low-pressure section of the regenerative water heaters of steam cycle in analyzed unit. The result was to increase the power and efficiency of the entire power plant.
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Abstrakt

The aim of this paper is to analyze various CO2 compression processes for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Different thermodynamically feasible CO2 compression systems will be identified and their energy consumption quantified. A detailed thermodynamic analysis examines methods used to minimize the power penalty to the producer through integrated, low-power compression concepts. The goal of the present research is to reduce this penalty through an analysis of different compression concepts, and a possibility of capturing the heat of compression and converting it to useful energy for use elsewhere in the plant.
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Abstrakt

The kinetics of the reaction between CO2 and methyldiethanolamine in aqueous solutions have been studied using the stopped-flow technique at 288, 293, 298 and 303 K. The amine concentration ranged from 250 to 875 mol·m-3. The overall reaction rate constant was found to increase with amine concentration and temperature. The acid base catalysis mechanism was applied to correlate the experimentally determined kinetic data. A good agreement between the second order rate constants for the CO2 reaction with MDEA computed from the stopped-flow data and the values reported in the literature was obtained.
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