The economics of an ORC system is strictly linked to thermodynamic properties of the working fluid. A bad choice of working fluid could lead to a less efficient and expensive plant/generation unit. Some selection criteria have been put forward by various authors, incorporating thermodynamic properties, provided in literature but these do not have a general character. In the paper a simple analysis has been carried out which resulted in development of thermodynamic criteria for selection of an appropriate working fluid for subcritical and supercritical cycles. The postulated criteria are expressed in terms of non-dimensional numbers, which are characteristic for different fluids. The efficiency of the cycle is in a close relation to these numbers. The criteria are suitable for initial fluid selection. Such criteria should be used with other ones related to environmental impact, economy, system size, etc. Examples of such criteria have been also presented which may be helpful in rating of heat exchangers, which takes into account both heat transfer and flow resistance of the working fluid.
Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is used, amongst the others, in geothermal facilities, in waste heat recovery or in domestic combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The paper presents optimization of an idealized ORC equivalent of the Carnot cycle with non-zero temperature difference in heat exchangers and with energy dissipation caused by the viscous fluid flow. In this analysis the amount of heat outgoing from the ORC is given. Such a case corresponds to the application of an ORC in domestic CHP. This assumption is different from the most of ORC models where the incoming amount of heat is given.
The paper presents the results of a simulative thermodynamic analysis of a multifuel CHP plant basing on the technological diagram of Avedøre 2. Calculations have been carried out for the operation of Avedøre 2 plant in the district heating mode. Several variants of simulation have been considered, determined by the choice of operation of the respective plants, viz. main boiler fired with natural gas, main and biomass boiler, main boiler and GT plant, joint operation of the main and biomass boiler and GT plant, main boiler (fired with heavy fuel oil or/and wood chips) and biomass boiler and GT plant. For each variants a diagram of iso-fuel curves has been developed, illustrating the variability of useful effects (power output and district heat) at various loads of the CHP steam part. In case of the variant in which the main boiler and GT are in operation with natural gas as fuel the exemplary energy indices were determined.
In the paper presented are experiences from operation of three different expansion devices for possible implementation in the domestic micro CHP. These were the modified scroll expander and two designs based on the variable working chamber volume pneumatic devices. Experiments showed the superiority of both "pneumatic devices" over the scroll expander, indicating the possible internal efficiencies in the range of 61 82Such efficiencies are very attractive, especially at the higher end of that range. The volume of these devices is much smaller than the scroll expander which makes it again more suitable for a domestic micro CHP. Small rotational velocities enable to conclude that connection to electricity grid will also be simpler in the case of "pneumatic devices". The "pneumatic devices" under scrutiny here could be an alternative to the typical vapour turbine in the ORC cycle, which is in the process of development at the IFFM.
The paper presents an analysis of the sustainable development of electricity generation sources in the National Power System (NPS). The criteria to be met by sustainable power systems were determined. The paper delineates the power balance of centrally dispatched power generation units (CDPGU), which is required for the secure work of the NPS until 2035. 19 prospective electricity generation technologies were defined. They were divided into the following three groups: system power plants, large and medium combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as small power plants and CHP plants (distributed sources). The quantities to characterize the energy effectiveness and CO2 emission of the energy generation technologies analyzed were determined. The unit electricity generation costs, discounted for 2018, including the costs of CO2 emission allowance, were determined for the particular technologies. The roadmap of the sustainable development of the generation sources in the NPS between 2020 and 2035 was proposed. The results of the calculations and analyses were presented in tables and figure
The results of investigations conducted on the prototype of vapour driven micro-CHP unit integrated with a gas boiler are presented. The system enables cogeneration of heat and electric energy to cover the energy demand of a household. The idea of such system is to produce electricity for own demand or for selling it to the electric grid – in such situation the system user will became the prosumer. A typical commercial gas boiler, additionally equipped with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) module based on environmentally acceptable working fluid can be regarded as future generation unit. In the paper the prototype of innovative domestic cogenerative ORC system, consisting of a conventional gas boiler and a small size axial vapour microturbines (in-house designed for ORC and the commercially available for Rankine cycle (RC)), evaporator and condenser were scrutinised. In the course of study the fluid working temperatures, rates of heat, electricity generation and efficiency of the whole system were obtained. The tested system could produce electricity in the amount of 1 kWe. Some preliminary tests were started with water as working fluid and the results for that case are also presented. The investigations showed that domestic gas boiler was able to provide the saturated/superheated ethanol vapour (in the ORC system) and steam (in the RC system) as working fluids.
Heat exchangers of different types find application in power systems based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Compact plate fin heat exchangers are typically found to perfectly fit systems with power output under 5 kWel. Micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) units with solid oxide fuel cells can exhibit high electrical and overall efficiencies, exceeding 85%, respectively. These values can be achieved only when high thermal integration of a system is assured. Selection and sizing of heat exchangers play a crucial role and should be done with caution. Moreover, performance of heat exchangers under variable operating conditions can strongly influence efficiency of the complete system. For that reason, it becomes important to develop high fidelity mathematical models allowing evaluation of heat exchangers under modified operating conditions, in high temperature regimes. Prediction of pressure and temperatures drops at the exit of cold and hot sides are important for system-level studies. Paper presents dedicated mathematical model used for evaluation of a plate fin heat exchanger, operating as a part of micro-CHP unit with solid oxide fuel cells.
The paper presents results of research focused on modelling heat storage tank operation used for forecasting purposes. It presents selected issues related to mathematical modelling of heat storage tanks and related equipment and discusses solution process of the optimisation task. Presented detailed results were obtained during real-life industrial implementation of the optimisation process at the Siekierki combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Warsaw owned by Vattenfall Heat Poland S.A. (currently by Polish Oil & Gas Company - PGNiG SA) carried out by the Academic Research Centre of Power Industry and Environment Protection, Warsaw University of Technology in collaboration with Transition Technologies S.A. company.
The paper presents thermodynamic analysis of the gas-steam unit of the 65 MWe combined heat and power station. Numerical analyses of the station was performed for the nominal operation conditions determining the Brayton and combined cycle. Furthermore, steam utilization for the gas turbine propulsion in the Cheng cycle was analysed. In the considered modernization, steam generated in the heat recovery steam generator unit is directed into the gas turbine combustion chamber, resulting in the Brayton cycle power increase. Computational flow mechanics codes were used in the analysis of the thermodynamic and operational parameters of the unit.
Research oriented on identification of operating states variations with the application of mathematical models of thermal processes has been developed in the field of energy processes diagnostics. Simple models, characterised by short calculation time, are necessary for thermal diagnostics needs. Such models can be obtained using empirical modelling methods. Good results brings the construction of analytical model with auxiliary empirical built-in functions. The paper presents a mathematical model of a steam-water cycle containing mass and energy balances and semiempirical models of steam expansion line in turbine as well as heat transfer in exchangers. A model of steam expansion line in a turbine is worked out with the application of a steam flow capacity equation and an internal efficiency of process equation for each group of stages for the analysed turbine. A model of a heat exchanger contains energy balance and the relation describing heat transfer in an exchanger, proposed by Beckman. Estimation of empirical equations coefficients was realised with the application of special and reliable measurements. Estimation criterion was a weighted relative sum of the remainder squares. There are exemplary calculations results presented in the final part of paper.
The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.
In recent years, we can observe the development of the thermal diagnosis and operating control systems based on measuring techniques and mathematical modelling of processes improvement. Evaluation of the actual operating state is insufficient to make an optimal operating decisions. Thus, information about the influence of the operating parameters' deviations from the reference state on indicators describing energy consumption of the process (for example specific heat consumption or specific energy consumption) is also necessary. The paper presents methods for generation the information about the influence of the steam-water cycle operating parameters on specific heat consumption in a turbine's cycle. A mathematical model of steam-water cycle for a CHP (Cogeneration - also Combined Heat and Power) unit is being worked out. Methods for calculation of operating deviations with the application of correction curves and a mathematical model are described. Exemplary calculation results are presented.