CFD modelling of momentum and heat transfer using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach has been presented for a Kenics static mixer. The simulations were performed with the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15 for turbulent flow of three values of Reynolds number, Re = 5 000, 10 000 and 18 000. The numerical modelling began in the RANS model, where standard k−ε turbulence model and wall functions were used. Then the LES iterations started from the initial velocity and temperature fields obtained in RANS. In LES, the Smagorinsky–Lilly model was used for the sub-grid scale fluctuations along with wall functions for prediction of flow and heat transfer in the near-wall region. The performed numerical study in a Kenics static mixer resulted in highly fluctuating fields of both velocity and temperature. Simulation results were presented and analysed in the form of velocity and temperature contours. In addition, the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient values for the whole insert length were computed and compared with the literature experimental data. Good compliance of the LES simulation results with the experimental correlation was obtained.
This study discusses results of experiments on hydrodynamic assessment of gas flow through backbone (skeletal) porous materials with an anisotropic structure. The research was conducted upon materials of diversified petrographic characteristics – cokes. The study was conducted for a variety of hydrodynamic conditions, using air. The basis for assessing hydrodynamics of gas flow through porous material was a gas stream that results from the pressure forcing such flow. The results of measurements indicate a clear impact of the type of material on the gas permeability, and additionally – as a result of their anisotropic internal structure – to a significant effect of the flow direction on the value of gas stream. In aspect of scale transfer problem, a method of mapping the flow geometry of skeletal materials has been developed and usefulness of numerical methods has been evaluated to determine pressure drop and velocity distribution of gas flow. The results indicate the compliance of the used calculation method with the result of experiments.
The whirlpool separator, used for hot trub separation, is prevalent in the brewing industry. It is a kind of a hydrocyclone inside of which a tea leaf effect occurs, which is sediment accumulation into a cone shape at the central part of the tank’s bottom. This manner of sediment accumulation is caused by the secondary flow occurring in the so-called Ekman boundary layer. This article is a summary of the research, which has been conducted for many years and involved observation, simulation and experimental research on the recognition and formation of the secondary flow accumulating the sediment cone. Secondary flows occurring in a whirlpool were identified through CFD simulation and PIV experiments, and are presented in this paper. Based on their location and direction, an attempt to determine their impact on the separation process taking place in the whirlpool has been made. The secondary flow identification methods proposed in this paper can be successfully applied in other solutions, e. g. structural ones, which involve rotational-flow-based separation.
The paper presents the full transient, two-dimensional finite volume method numerical calculations of the classical involute scroll compressor geometry. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate an adaptable implementation of numerical fluid mechanics and thermodynamics modeling procedure with a mesh deformation. The methodology consisting in the compression chamber geometry preparation, mesh generation and governing equations solving was described. The evaluation was carried by simulating an adiabatic compression process and the results were compared with the theoretical zero-dimensional model and the existing research concerning the scroll chamber computational fluid dynamics modeling. It has been shown that the proposed modeling routine results in good accuracy for the scroll compressors study applications.
The methane hazard is one of the most dangerous phenomena in hard coal mining. In a certain range of concentrations, methane is flammable and explosive. Therefore, in order to maintain the continuity of the production process and the safety of work for the crew, various measures are taken to prevent these concentration levels from being exceeded. A significant role in this process is played by the forecasting of methane concentrations in mine headings. This very problem has been the focus of the present article. Based on discrete measurements of methane concentration in mine headings and ventilation parameters, the distribution of methane concentration levels in these headings was forecasted. This process was performed on the basis of model-based tests using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The methodology adopted was used to develop a structural model of the region under analysis, for which boundary conditions were adopted on the basis of the measurements results in real-world conditions. The analyses conducted helped to specify the distributions of methane concentrations in the region at hand and determine the anticipated future values of these concentrations. The results obtained from model-based tests were compared with the results of the measurements in realworld conditions. The methodology using the CFD and the results of the tests offer extensive possibilities of their application for effective diagnosis and forecasting of the methane hazard in mine headings.
The primary methods of reducing nitrogen oxides, despite the development of more advanced technologies, will continue to be the basis for NOx reduction. This paper presents the results of multivariate numerical studies on the impact of air staging on the flue gas temperature and composition, as well as on NOx emissions in a OP 230 boiler furnace. A numerical model of the furnace and the platen superheater was validated based on measurements using a 0-dimensional model of the boiler. Numerical simulations were performed using the ANSYS Workbench package. It is shown that changes in the distribution of air to OFA nozzles, the angle of the air outflow from the nozzles and the nozzle location involve a change in the flue gas temperature and in the volume of NOx and CO emissions at the furnace outlet.
A mathematical model of waste tyre pyrolysis process is developed in this work. Tyre material decomposition based on a simplified reaction mechanism leads to main product lumps: noncondensable (gas), condensable (pyrolytic oil) and solid (char). The model takes into account kinetics of heat and mass transfer in the grain of the shredded rubber material as well as surrounding gas phase. The main reaction routes were modelled as the pseudo-first order reactions with a rate constant calculated from the Arrhenius type equation using literature values of activation energy determined for main tyre constituents based on TG/DTG measurements and tuned pre-exponential parameter values obtained by fitting theoretical predictions to the experimental results obtained in our laboratory reactor. The model was implemented within the CFD software (ANSYS Fluent). The results of numerical simulation of the pyrolysis process revealed non-uniformity of sample’s porosity and temperature. The simulation predictions were in satisfactory agreement with the experimentally measured mass loss of the tyre sample during pyrolysis process investigated in a laboratory reactor.
The purpose of the work was initial modification of the construction of a commercially produced heat exchanger – recuperator with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) methods, based on designs and process parameters which were provided. Uniformity of gas distribution in the space between the tubes of the apparatus as well as the pressure drop in it were taken as modification criteria. Uniformity of the gas velocity field between the tubes of the heat exchanger should cause equalization of the local individual heat transfer coefficient values and temperature value. Changes of the apparatus construction which do not worsen work conditions of the equipment, but cause savings of constructional materials (elimination or shortening some parts of the apparatus) were taken into consideration.
Two systems of hydraulic mixing in a vertical cylindrical anaerobic digester: standard and modernised are discussed in the paper. Numerical investigations that were carried out are focused on a study of hydrodynamic processes in an aerobic digester using two various systems of hydraulic mixing as well as on analysis of the efficiency of methane fermentation process accomplished under different geometric parameters of an anaerobic digester and systems of hydraulic mixing.
Generally, the temperature of flue gases at the furnace outlet is not measured. Therefore, a special computation procedure is needed to determine it. This paper presents a method for coordination of the numerical model of a pulverised fuel boiler furnace chamber with the measuring data in a situation when CFD calculations are made in regard to the furnace only. This paper recommends the use of the classical 0-dimensional balance model of a boiler, based on the use of measuring data. The average temperature of flue gases at the furnace outlet tk" obtained using the model may be considered as highly reliable. The numerical model has to show the same value of tk" . This paper presents calculations for WR-40 boiler. The CFD model was matched to the 0-dimensional tk" value by means of a selection of the furnace wall emissivity. As a result of CFD modelling, the flue gas temperature and the concentration of CO, CO2, O2 and NOx were obtained at the furnace chamber outlet. The results of numerical modelling of boiler combustion based on volumetric reactions and using the Finite-Rate/Eddy-Dissipation Model are presented.
Paper presents the results of numerical modelling of a rectangular tube filled with a mixture of air and CO2 by means of the induced standing wave. Assumed frequency inducing the acoustic waves corresponds to the frequency of the thermoacoustic engine. In order to reduce the computational time the engine has been replaced by the mechanical system consisting of a piston. This paper includes the results of model studies of an acoustic tube filled with a mixture of air and CO2 in which a standing wave was induced.
Heat exchangers are widely employed in numerous industrial applications to serve the heat recovery and cooling purpose. This work reports a performance analysis of a tube in tube heat exchanger for different flow configuration under variable operating conditions. The experimental investigation was performed on a U-shaped double pipe heat exchanger set up whereas Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code FLUENT along with k-ε turbulence modeling scheme was implemented for the simulation study. The flow solution was achieved by implementing k-ε turbulence modeling scheme and the simulation findings were compared with the experimental results. The experimental findings were in good agreement with the simulation results. The counter-flow configuration was found to be 29.4% more effective than the co-current one at low fluid flow rate. Direct relationship between heat transfer rate and flow rate is observed while effectiveness and LMTD showed inverse relationship with it. The significance of inlet temperature of hot and cold stream has been evaluated, they play crucial role in heat exchange process.
This paper analyses the real behaviour of the fluid in the channels of a three-end membrane module. The commonly accepted mathematical model of membrane separation of gas mixtures in such modules assumes a plug flow of fluid through the feed channel and perfect mixing in the permeate channel. This article discusses the admissibility of accepting such an assumption regarding the fluid behaviour in the permeate channel. Throughout analysis of the values of the Péclet number criterion, it has been demonstrated that in the industrial processes of membrane gas separation, the necessary conditions for the perfect mixing in the permeate channel are not met. Then, CFD simulations were performed in order to establish the real fluid behaviour in this channel. It was proved that in the permeate channel the fluid movement corresponds to the plug flow, with the concentration differences at both ends of the module being insignificant. In view of the observations made, the admissibility of concentration stability assumptions in the mathematical models for the permeate channel was discussed.
In this paper a three-dimensional model for determination of a microreactor's length is presented and discussed. The reaction of thermocatalytic decomposition has been implemented on the base of experimental data. Simplified Reynolds-Maxwell formula for the slip velocity boundary condition has been analysed and validated. The influence of the Knudsen diffusion on the microreactor's performance has also been verified. It was revealed that with a given operating conditions and a given geometry of the microreactor, there is no need for application of slip boundary conditions and the Knudsen diffusion in further analysis. It has also been shown that the microreactor's length could be practically estimated using standard models.
The aim of this work was to present the numerical simulation results determining the distributions of flow velocity and pressure in the individual channels of a plate heat exchanger. The simulations have been conducted by means of the Finite Volume Method (FVM) of numerical computation using the ANSYS CFX software. The computational model constituted spaces between 10 flat, straight flow type plates of the heat exchanger. The obtained results of numerical simulations confirm the presence of inhomogeneous flow conditions in the neighbouring channels between the plates. The computations enabled to point out the regions on the plates, in which insufficient flow can result in problems with their cleaning. The results of this work constitute the first part of a research leading to an assessment of cleaning conditions in plate heat exchangers.
The subject of the CFD analysis presented in this paper is the process of biomass indirect co-firing carried out in a system composed of a stoker-fired furnace coupled with a gasification reactor. The installation is characterised by its compact structure, which makes it possible to minimise heat losses to the environment and enhance the physical enthalpy of the oxidising agent – flue gases – having a favourable chemical composition with oxygen and water vapour. The test results provided tools for modelling of biomass thermal processing using a non-standard oxidiser in the form of flue gases. The obtained models were used to optimise the indirect co-combustion process to reduce emissions. An overall effect of co-combustion of gas from biomass gasification in the stoker furnace is the substantial reduction in NO emissions by about 22%.
The paper is concerned with an important issue from the field of thermoacoustics - the numerical modelling of the flow field in the thermoacoustic engine. The presented way of modelling is based on the solution to fundamental fluid mechanics equations that govern the flow of compressible, viscous, and heat-transferring gas. The paper presents the way of modelling the thermoacoustic engine, the way of conducting calculations and the results which illustrate the correctness of the selected computational technique.
Clinker burning process has a decisive influence on energy consumption and the cost of cement production. A new problem is to use the process of decarbonization of alternative fuels from waste. These issues are particularly important in the introduction of a two-stage combustion of fuel in a rotary kiln without the typical reactor-decarbonizator. This work presents results of numerical studies on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the riser chamber, which will be designed to burn fuel in the system where combustion air is supplied separately from the clinker cooler. The mathematical model is based on a combination of two methods of motion description: Euler description for the gas phase and Lagrange description for particles. Heat transfer between particles of raw material and gas was added to the numerical calculations. The main aim of the research was finding the correct fractional distribution of particles. For assumed particle distribution on the first stage of work, authors noted that all particles were carried away by the upper outlet to the preheater tower, what is not corresponding to the results of experimental studies. The obtained results of calculations can be the basis for further optimization of the design and operating conditions in the riser chamber with the implementation of the system.
Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.
Passive autocatalytic recombiners (PAR) is the only used method for hydrogen removal from the containment buildings in modern nuclear reactors. Numerical models of such devices, based on the CFD approach, are the subject of this paper. The models may be coupled with two types of computer codes: the lumped parameter codes, and the computational fluid dynamics codes. This work deals with 2D numerical model of PAR and its validation. Gaseous hydrogen may be generated in water nuclear reactor systems in a course of a severe accident with core overheating. Therefore, a risk of its uncontrolled combustion appears which may be destructive to the containment structure.
The optimization of finned tube heat exchanger is presented focusing on different fluid velocities and the consideration of aerodynamic configuration of the fin. It is reasonable to expect an influence of fin profile on the fluid streamline direction. In the cross-flow heat exchanger, the air streams are not heated and cooled evenly. The fin and tube geometry affects the flow direction and influences temperature changes. The heat transfer conditions are modified by changing the distribution of fluid mass flow. The fin profile impact also depends on the air velocity value. Three-dimensional models are developed to find heat transfer characteristics between a finned tube and the air for different air velocities and fin shapes. Mass flow weighted average temperatures of air volume flow rate are calculated in the outlet section and compared for different fin/tube shapes in order to optimize heat transfer between the fin material and air during the air flow in the cross flow heat exchanger.
The joined wing concept is an unconventional airplane configuration, known since the mid-twenties of the last century. It has several possible advantages, like reduction of the induced drag and weight due to the closed wing concept. The inverted joined wing variant is its rarely considered version, with the front wing being situated above the aft wing. The following paper presents a performance prediction of the recently optimized configuration of this airplane. Flight characteristics obtained numerically were compared with the performance of two classical configuration airplanes of similar category. Their computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were created basing on available documentation, photographs and some inverse engineering methods. The analysis included simulations performed for a scale of 3-meter wingspan inverted joined wing demonstrator and also for real-scale manned airplanes. Therefore, the results of CFD calculations allowed us to assess the competitiveness of the presented concept, as compared to the most technologically advanced airplanes designed and manufactured to date. At the end of the paper, the areas where the inverted joined wing is better than conventional airplane were predicted and new research possibilities were described.
The disposal of ash in a thermal plant through the slurry pipe is subjected to some erosion wear due to the abrasive characteristics of the slurry. A simulation study of particle-liquid erosion of mild steel pipe wall based on CFD-FLUENT that considers the solid-liquid, solid-solid and solid-wall interaction is presented in this work. The multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model with standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling is adopted to predict the particulate erosion wear caused by the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. Erosion rate for different particle size and concentration is evaluated at variable flow rate. It is observed that the pressure drop and erosion rate share direct relationships with flow velocity, particle size and concentration. The flow velocity is found to be the most influencing parameter. A model capable of predicting the erosion wear at variable operating conditions is presented. The simulation findings show good agreement with the published findings.
Electroflotation is used in the water treatment industry for the recovery of suspended particles. In this study the bubble formation and release of hydrogen bubbles generated electrolytically from a platinum cathode was investigated. Previously, it was found that both the growth rate and detachment diameter increased with increasing wire diameter. Conversely, current density had little effect on the released bubble size. It was also found that the detached bubbles rapidly increased in volume as they rose through the liquid as a result of decreasing hydrostatic pressure and high levels of dissolved hydrogen gas in the surrounding liquid. The experimental system was computationally modelled using a Lagrangian-Eulerian Discrete Particle approach. It was revealed that desorption of gaseous solutes from the electrolyte solution, other than hydrogen, may have a significant impact on the diameter variation of the formed bubbles. The simulation confirmed that liquid circulation, either forced or induced by the rising bubble plume, influences both the hydrogen supersaturation (concentration) in the neighbourhood of the electrode and the size of the resulting bubbles.