This paper presents a study on nitrogen conversion in oxy-fuel coal combustion in a pilot scale CFB 0.1 MWth facility. The paper is focused on fuel-N behaviour in the combustion chamber when the combustion process is accomplished under oxy-fuel CFB conditions. The analysis is based on infurnace sampling of flue gas and calculations of the conversion ratios of fuel-nitrogen (fuel-N) to NO, NO2, N2O, NH3 and HCN. For the tests, O2/CO2 mixtures with the oxygen content of 21 vol.% (primary gas) and with the oxygen content varied from 21 to 35 vol.% (secondary gas), were used as the fluidising gas. Measurements were carried out in 4 control points located along the combustion chamber: 0.43 m, 1.45 m, 2.50 m and 4.88 m. Results presented below indicate that an increased oxygen concentration in the higher part of the combustion chamber has strong influence on the behaviour of fuel based nitrogen compounds.
Due to the fact that the landfill deposition of municipal waste with the higher heating value (HHV) than 6 MJ/kg in Poland is prohibited, the application of waste derived fuels for energy production seems to be good option. There is a new combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plant in Zabrze, where varied solid fuels can be combusted. The formation of ashes originating from the combustion of alternative fuels causes a need to find ways for their practical application and demands the knowledge about their properties. Therefore, the present work is devoted to studying the co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and coal, its impact on fly ash quality and the potential application of ashes to synthesis zeolites. The major objectives of this paper is to present the detail characteristics of ash generated during this process by using the advanced instrumental techniques (XRF, XRD, SEM, B ET, TGA). The co-combustion were carried out at 0.1 MWth fluidized bed combustor. The amount of SRF in fuel mixture was 1, 5, 10 and 20%, respectively. The focus is on the comparison the ashes depending on the fuel mixture composition. Generally, the ashes characterise high amounts of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. It is well observed, that the chemical composition of ashes from co-combustion of blends reflects the amount of SRF addition. Considering the chemical composition of studied ashes, they can be utilize as a zeolites A. The main conclusions is that SRF can be successfully combusted with coal in CFB technology and the fly ashes obtained from coal + SRF fuel mixtures can be used to synthesis zeolites.
Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emission, mainly carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of 'zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper the results of analyses of the influence of changing two quantities, namely oxygen share in oxidant produced in the air separation unit, and oxygen share in oxidant supplied to the furnace chamber on the selected characteristics of a steam boiler including the degree of exhaust gas recirculation, boiler efficiency and adiabatic flame temperature, was examined. Due to the possibility of the integration of boiler model with carbon dioxide capture, separation and storage installation, the subject of the analysis was also to determine composition of the flue gas at the outlet of a moisture condensation installation. Required calculations were made using a model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology, which was built in a commercial software and in-house codes.
The paper describes the results of various actions and industrial tests conducted in order to decrease the content of unburned carbon in the fly ash of a circulating fluidised bed combustor (CFBC). Several attempts to improve the situation were made and the effects of several parameters on the unburned carbon content in the fly ash were investigated (e.g. bed temperature, cyclone separation efficiency, fuel particle size distribution, boiler hydrodynamics, grid design, and fuel data). Unfortunately, no satisfactory solution to these problems was found. Probably, apart from attrition and char fragmentation, additional factors also contributed to the formation of unburned carbon in the CFBC fly ash.
The objective of this study was to investigate combustion characteristics of biomass (willow, Salix viminalis) burnt in air and O2/CO2mixtures in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Air and oxy-combustion characteristics of wooden biomass in CFB were supplemented by the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA). The results of conducted CFB and TGA tests show that the composition of the oxidizing atmosphere strongly influences the combustion process of biomass fuels. Replacing N2in the combustion environment by CO2caused slight delay (higher ignition temperature and lower maximum mass loss rate) in the combustion of wooden biomass. The combustion process in O2/CO2mixtures at 30% and 40% O2is faster and shorter than that at lower O2concentrations.
The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR) were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa) in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.
The paper presents a thermomechanical computational solid mechanics analysis (CSM) of a pipe "double omega", used in the steam superheaters in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The complex cross-section shape of the "double omega" tubes requires more precise analysis in order to prevent from failure as a result of the excessive temperature and thermal stresses. The results have been obtained using the finite volume method for transient state of superheater. The calculation was carried out for the section of pipe made of low-alloy steel.
This article describes a thermodynamic analysis of an oxy type power plant. The analyzed power plant consists of: 1) steam turbine for supercritical steam parameters of 600 °C/29 MPa with a capacity of 600 MW; 2) circulating fluidized bed boiler, in which brown coal with high moisture content (42.5%) is burned in the atmosphere enriched in oxygen; 3) air separation unit (ASU); 4) CO2 capture installation, where flue gases obtained in the combustion process are compressed to the pressure of 150 MPa. The circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is integrated with a fuel dryer and a cryogenic air separation unit. Waste nitrogen from ASU is heated in the boiler, and then is used as a coal drying medium. In this study, the thermal efficiency of the boiler, steam cycle thermal efficiency and power demand were determined. These quantities made possible to determine the net efficiency of the test power plant.