Regaining independence by each country (Tunisia, Morocco 1956, Algeria 1962) and the publication of relevant documents (codes of family law, constitutions) created opportunities to speak more widely about social and economic rights, or about political rights for women. However, the rights granted to women were characterized by the principle of inequality, especially in Algeria and Morocco. In this difficult and complex situation, the emancipation movement of women went through various phases. In Algeria, its strength began to appear at the turn of the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century and has been constantly increased. In Morocco, in principle, the awakening took place in the early nineties of the twentieth century. Women themselves played a significant role in the activities for emancipation, engaging in various undertakings, organizations and associations, and in activating Non Profit Organizations (Organisation Non-Gouvernementale -ONG) with women participation from the end of the 80s of the twentieth century, which, in its turn, created opportunities for legal reforms, which would not exist without activities carried out by various associations, including women’s associations. The Jasmine Revolution, also known as the Arabic spring, was initiated in Tunisia, and has had a significant impact on the contemporary activities of women.
The article is an attempt to present and discuss – based on the struggle against Barbary pirates and corsairs waged in the Mediterranean Sea – dynamic and complex political and economic processes as well as diplomatic efforts that contributed to the French conquest of Algiers in 1830. The first three decades of the 19th century were among the most turbulent periods in the history of the French nation. Defeated and humiliated by the enemy coalition in 1815, France did not give up on her “imperial dream”, this time trying to make it come true in a non-distant Maghreb. The way to achieve this goal was, however, quite bumpy. At that time, the western part of the Mediterranean Sea was an arena of competition, mainly between the United States and Great Britain. After all, this turned out to be very favourable to France. Wishing to introduce an extra element into the game, eliminate rivals for overseas supremacy, as well as win Russia – that was gradually strengthening her influence in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea – as an ally, at the end of the 1820’s Great Britain became an advocate of her neighbour across the English Channel. Gradually regaining her economic potential and international importance, France reached for Algiers by entering the armed conflict. However, the French stronghold in Maghreb would soon pose a major challenge to the British colonialism in Africa. Expressing their major concern over the security of so-called “imperial route” leading via the Mediterranean sea, British politicians and statesmen adopted a new political stance toward the declining Ottoman Empire. Owing to their “independence and integrity” doctrine (formulated in 1830’s), the rich Ottoman heritage managed to “survive” by the outbreak of World War II.
Giorgio Maria Ciaceri was a Jesuit missionary from Sicily who spent about ten years in North Africa during the mid Nineteenth century. From his Jesuit center located near Algiers, he travelled all over Algeria and arrived until Tunis where he spent the last period of his journey. His travelogue, published in 1885–86, is almost unknown to scholarly research and is a very rich source for anthropological, ethnographical, historical, social, religious and linguistic information about the countries and the cultures he visited. The present article deals with his travelogue and attempts to draw the attention to some aspects of his work and in particular to the linguistic issues that it contains.
The aim of the research conducted in a 2-year pot experiment in an unheated plastic tunnel was to determine suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus for phytoextraction of nickel from soil as well as to assess tolerance of this species on increasing concentrations of this metal in soil. Pots were filled with mineral soil (sand) and a mixture of soil with high-moor peat and three levels of nickel were introduced, i.e. 75 mg dm-3, 150 mg dm-3 and 600 mg dm-3 and the control combinations used substrates without the addition of nickel. Nickel was introduced only in the first year of the experiment in the form of nickel sulfate (NiSO4 · 6H2O). Miscanthus × giganteus accumulated a considerable amount of nickel in biomass. Miscanthus × giganteus growing in contaminated mineral soil turned out to be a species tolerant to high nickel concentrations
It is meaningful to study the issues of CO migration and its concentration distribution in a blind gallery to provide a basis for CO monitoring and calculation of fume-drainage time, which is of a great significance to prevent fume-poisoning accidents and improve efficiency of an excavation cycle. Based on a theoretical analysis of a differential change of CO mass concentration and the CO dispersion model in a fixed site, this paper presents several blasting fume monitoring test experiments, carried out with the test location to the head LP in arrange of 40-140 m. Studies have been done by arranging multiple sensors in the arch cross-section of the blind gallery, located at the Guilaizhuang Gold Mine, Shandong Province, China. The findings indicate that CO concentrations in the axial directions are quadratic functions with the Y and Z coordinate values of the cross-section of the blind gallery in an ascending stage of CO time- -concentration curve, with the maximum CO concentrations in Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. Also, the gradients of CO concentration in the gallery are symmetrical with the Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. In the descending stage of CO time-concentration curve, gradients of CO concentration decrease in lateral sides and increase in the middle, then gradually decrease at last. The rules of CO concentration distribution in the cross-section are that airflow triggers the turbulent change of the CO distribution volume concentration and make the CO volume concentration even gradually in the fixed position of the gallery. Moreover, the CO volume concentrations decrease gradually, as well as volume concentration gradients in the cross-section. The uniformity coefficients of CO concentration with duct airflow velocities of 12.5 m/s, 17.7 m/s and 23.2 m/s reach near 0.9 at 100-140 m from the heading to the monitoring spot. The theoretical model of a one-dimensional migration law of CO basically coincides with the negative exponential decay, which is verified via fitting. The average effective turbulent diffusion coefficient of CO in the blind gallery is approximate to 0.108 m2/s. There are strong linear relationships between CO initial concentration, CO peak concentrations and mass of explosive agent, which indicates that the CO initial concentration and the CO peak concentration can be predicted, based on the given range of the charging mass. The above findings can provide reliable references to the selection, installation of CO sensors and prediction of the fume-drainage time after blasting.
Antarctic krill carbohydrate content was followed during 1983—84 Eighth Polish Antarctic Expedition. The Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was th area of study. The following average values of three estimated fractions were obtained: 3.77 +- 1.51%, 0.47 +- 0.34% and 3.30 +- 1.33% for total, TCA-soluble and TCA-insoluble carbohydrates, respectively. Percentage contribution of the estimated fractions to dry weight varied seasonally (1.48—7.41%, 0.15—1.83%, and 1.28—6.28%, respectively). The carbohydrate content showed a clearcut cycle of changes over the calender year, with a minimum in autumn-winter and a maximum in spring-summer.
Seasonal changes in the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) autoproteolytic activity were followed throughout the year. Using the kinetic formula for the first order reaction, the initial reaction rate (y0), the rate after 5 minutes (y5) and the average reaction rate (yx) after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min of incubation of mixed homogenate at 40° + 0.2°C were determined in each sample. Changes in the krill autoproteolytic activity over the year were found to follow a sinusoid with a maximum during the austral summer (January) and a minimum during the austral winter (July-August). The maximum initial reaction rate was about ten times the minimum initial rate, which is an evidence of a considerable seasonal variation in the krill autoproteolytic activity associated presumably with the krill feeding intensity.
Notothenia coriiceps, N.rossii and Lepidonotothen nudifrons were sampled from Admiralty Bay from March to November 1997 and from January to February 1999. The ratio of N.coriiceps to N.rossii individuals in catches regularly increased during 22 years from 0.4 in 1977 to 9.5 in 1999. Oving to its reproductive strategy and avoidance of shallow waters N.rossii may be more vulnerable to overfishing. The condition factor was the most stable (CV 6 -10%), variations in the of hepatosomatic index and index of stomach fullness were intermediate (21 -38%and 40 -43%,respectively), and the gonadosomatic index was the most variable (65 -100%). Lack of seasonality in two somatic indices (condition factor and index of stomach fullness) in N.coriiceps adults is a direct effect of high food availability and unlimited food detection all year round. In contrast, the seasonality of a reproductive index (gonadosomatic index) of these fish is a response to the highly seasonal trophic conditions for pelagic larvae.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of estrus induction and fertility by using subcutaneous melatonin (MEL, T1) and short-term intravaginal medroxyprogesteronacetate plus pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatments (sMAP+eCG, T2) in ewes on seasonaly anestrus. In this study, 105 mature clinically healthy Kivircik ewes in anestrus season and 4 rams were used. After synchronization applications, ewes exhibiting estrus signs were hand-mated with rams known to be fertile. Blood samples were collected at different times in order to determine progesterone (P4) concentrations. Results showed that estrus manipulation protocols induced significant improvement in pregnancy rate. All the fertility results obtained with the sMAP+eCG or MEL groups were similar, in seasonal anestrus. The efficacy duration of P4 in the MEL group was longer than that in short-term progestagen group. Plasma P4 concentrations was significantly different between the first (I) and last (III) measurement days (p<0.01). Increase in P4 concentration in T2 group was faster than that in T1 group, and blood P4 concentrations at higher levels could successfully be achieved by using any of the protocols in this study during the seasonal anestrus. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the hormone application groups received very high estrus response. In addition, the twin ratio was found to be higher in T1 group compared to those determined in the other groups (T2 and Control group). Furthermore, plasma P4 concentrations and high birth rates were obtained in ewes in T1 and T2 groups. These procedures can be considered a good alternative to traditional procedures due to its flexibility under field conditions.
Measurements were made of organic fluxes at a coastal sediment at Signy Island , South Orkney Islands, Antarctica , between December 1990 and March 1992. The deposition rate of organic matter to the sediment was measured at the same time with a maximum sedimentation rate of 306 mg C m–2 d–1. The rates of sedimentary organic input were small during winter ice cover, and the organic content of the sediment declined during this period as available organic matter was depleted. Fresh organic input occurred as soon as the sea-ice melted and ice algal biomass was deposited to the sediment; and was sustained during the spring after ice break-up by continued primary production in the water column. The proportion of available carbon in surface sediments was measured during a seasonal cycle using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an indicator organism over the 0–1 cm depth horizon. Variations in the amount of organic matter deposited to the sediments and the proportion of available carbon were observed during the seasonal cycle. Seasonal variations of benthic activity in this coastal sediment was regulated by the input and availability of organic matter, and not by seasonal water temperature, which was relatively constant between –1.8 and 0.5°C .
Ground temperature variations have been analysed to the depth of 160 cm, with respect to meteorological elements and short-wave radiation balance. The database of the ground temperature covers a thirteen month-long period (May 1992 – June 1993), which included both the seasons of complete freezing of the ground and thaw. Special attention has been given to the development of perennial permafrost and its spatial distribution. In summer, the depth of thawing ground varied in different types of ground — at the Polish Polar Station, this was ca. 130 cm. The ground froze completely in the first week of October. Its thawing started in June. The snow cover restrained heat penetration in the ground, which hindered the ground thawing process. Cross-correlation shows a significant influence of the radiation balance (K*) on the values of near-surface ground temperatures (r2 = 0.62 for summer).