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Abstract

The combined effect of sulfur (S) and acid soluble aluminum (Als) content on precipitates and microstructures in grainoriented silicon steel were investigated. The results show that there are dominant AlN and a little amount of MnS-AlN composite in annealed hot-rolled band, and the amount of precipitates increases distinctly with increasing Als content, while S content plays a negligible role. The inhibitors that precipitate during hot band annealing can restrain the grain growth during hot band annealing and primary annealing, and the smaller grains of annealed hot-rolled band can contribute to the formation of {111} <112> texture during primary annealing. Lower S content is conducive to the formation of {111} <112> texture during primary annealing by promoting the formation of Goss texture during hot rolling.
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Abstract

In vitro embryogenic callus is a critical factor for genetic transformation of rice, especially for indica varieties. In this study, we investigated the relationship between polyamines, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and callus browning, and we studied the effect of exogenous Put on callus regeneration and on the content of endogenous polyamines. In addition, the expression levels of arginine decarboxylase gene (Adcl) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene (Samdc) in embryogenic callus were studied by quantitative Real-time PCR analysis. The results showed that the contents of endogenous Put and Spd in the browning callus were significantly lower than those in normal callus. Exogenous Put could effectively improve the growing state of callus of indica rice and enhance the development of embryogenic callus. The content of endogenous polyamines in embryogenic callus, especially Spd and Spm, was increased after addition of exogenous Put. Additionally, exogenous Put also had an obvious impact on the expression levels of Adcl but partial effect on the expression levels of Samdc gene. This study could increase the knowledge of both embryogenic callus induction and polyamine catabolism in callus in indica rice.
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