In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based approach is proposed for power system frequency estimation. Unlike the existing frequency estimators mainly used for power system monitoring and control, the proposed approach is developed for fundamental frequency estimation in the field of energy metering of nonlinear loads. The characteristics of a nonlinear load is that the power signal is heavily distorted, composed of harmonics, inter-harmonics and corrupted by noise. The main idea is to predetermine a series of frequency points, and the mean value of two frequency points nearest to the power system frequency is accepted as the approximate solution. Firstly the input signal is modulated with a series of modulating signals, whose frequencies are those frequency points. Then the modulated signals are decomposed into individual frequency bands using DWT, and differences between the maximum and minimum wavelet coefficients in the lowest frequency band are calculated. Similarities among power system frequency and those frequency points are judged by the differences. Simulation results have proven high immunity to noise, harmonic and inter-harmonic interferences. The proposed method is applicable for real-time power system frequency estimation for electric energy measurement of nonlinear loads.
The parenchyma cellulose isolated from bagasse pith was used as an alternative resource for preparation of water-soluble cellouronic acid sodium salt (CAS). The influence of ultrasound treatment on the cellulose was investigated for obtaining CAS by regioselective oxidization using 4-acetamide-TEMPO and NaClO with NaClO2 as a primary oxidant in an aqueous buffer at pH 6.0. The yield, carboxylate content and polymerization degree (DP) of CAS were measured as a function of ultrasonic power, agitating time and cellulose consistency by an orthogonal test. The ultrasound-treated conditions were further improved by discussion of ultrasonic power, the most important factor influencing the yield and DP. An optimized CAS yield of 72.9% with DP value (DPv) of 212 was found when the ultrasonic strength is 550 W, agitating time is 3 h and cellulose consistency is 2.0%. The oxidation reactivity of cellulose was improved by ultrasonic irradiation, whereas no significant changes in crystallinity of cellulose were measured after ultrasonic treatment. Moreover, the ultrasound treatment has a greater effect on yielding CAS from parenchyma cellulose than from bagasse fibrous' one. The CAS was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Current methods of fault diagnosis for the grounding grid using DC or AC are limited in accuracy and cannot be used to identify the locations of the faults. In this study, a new method of fault diagnosis for substation grounding grids is proposed using a square-wave. A frequency model of the grounding system is constructed by analyzing the frequency characteristics of the soil and the grounding conductors into which two different frequency square-wave sources are injected. By analyzing and comparing the corresponding information of the surface potentials of the output signals, the faults of the grounding grid can be diagnosed and located. Our method is verified by software simulation, scale model experiments and field experiments.
This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an improved thin-film thermal converter based on an electro-thermally excited and piezo-resistively detected micro-bridge resonator. The resonant thermal converter comprises a bifilar heater and an opposing micro-bridge resonator. When the micro-bridge resonator absorbs the radiant heat from the heater, its axial strain changes, then its resonant frequency follows. Therefore the alternating voltage or current can be transferred to the equivalent DC quantity. A non-contact temperature sensing mechanism eliminates heat loss from thermopiles and reduces coupling capacitance between the temperature sensor and the heater compared with traditional thin-film thermal converters based on thermopiles. In addition, the quasi-digital output of the resonant thin-film thermal converter eliminates such problems as intensity fluctuations associated with analogue signals output by traditional thin-film thermal converters. Using the fast-reversed DC (FRDC) method, the thermoelectric transfer difference, which determines the frequency-independent part of the ac-dc transfer difference, is evaluated to be as low as 1:1 #1; 10��6. It indicates that the non-contact temperature sensing mechanism is a feasible method to develop a high-performance thermal converter.
Microwave sintering process was employed to agglomerate ferromanganese alloy powders. The effects of sintering temperature, holding time and particle size composition on the properties and microstructure of sintering products were investigated. The results was shown that increasing sintering temperature or holding time appropriately is beneficial to increase the compressive strength and volume density. SEM and EDAX analysis shows that the liquid phase formed below the melting point in the sintering process, which leads to densification. XRD patterns indicate that the main reaction during microwave sintering is the decarbonization and carburization of iron carbide phase. The experiment demonstrate that the optimum microwave sintering process condition is 1150°C, 10 min and 50% content of the powders with the size of –75 μm