This study presents cause-effect dependencies between inputs and outputs of business transitions that are software objects designed for processing information-decision state variables in integrated enterprise process control (EntPC) systems. Business transitions are elementary components of controlling units in enterprise processes that have been defined as self-controlling, generalized business processes, which may serve not only as business processes but also as business systems or their roles. Business events, which have zero durations by definition, are interpreted as executions of business actions that are main operations of business transitions. Any ordered set of business actions, performed in the controlling unit of a given enterprise process and attributed to the same discrete-time instant, is referred to as ‘the information-decision process’. The i-d processes may be substituted by managerial business processes, performed on the lower organizational level, where durations of activity executions are greater than zero, but discrete-time periods are considerably shorter. In such a case, procedures of business actions are performed by corresponding activities of managerial processes, but on the level of business transitions the durations of their executions are imperceptible, and many different business events may occur at the same discrete-time instant. It has been demonstrated in the paper how to control business actions to ensure that a given i-d state variable may not change more than once at a given instant. Furthermore, the rules of designing the i-d process structures, which prevent random changes of transitory states, have been presented.
Evolution of many high technologies such as microelectronics, microsystem technology and nanotechnology involves design, application and testing of technical structures, whose size is being decreased continuously. Scanning probe microscopes (SPM) are therefore increasingly used as diagnostic and measurement instruments. Consequently the demand for standardized calibration routines for this kind of equipment rises. Up to now, there has been no in generally accepted guideline on how to perform SPM calibration procedure. In this article we discuss calibration scheme and focus on several critical aspects of SPM characterization e.g. the determination of the static and dynamic physical properties of the cantilever, the influence factors which need to be considered when plotting a scheme for the calibration of the force and displacement sensitivity.
Constantly developing nanotechnology provides the possibility of manufacturing nanostructured composites with a polymer matrix doped with ceramic nanoparticles, including ZnO. A specific feature of polymers, i.e. ceramic composite materials, is an amelioration in physical properties for polymer matrix and reinforcement. The aim of the paper was to produce thin fibrous composite mats, reinforced with ZnO nanoparticles and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix obtained by means of the electrospinning process and then examining the influence of the strength of the reinforcement on the morphology and optical properties of the composite nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the fibrous mats was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). UV –Vis spectroscopy allowed to examine the impact of zinc oxide on the optical properties of PVP/ZnO nanofibers and to investigate the width of the energy gap.