A hybrid method is presented for the integration of low-, mid-, and high-frequency driver filters in loud-speaker crossovers. The Pascal matrix is exploited to calculate denominators; the locations of minimum values in frequency magnitude responses are associated with the forms of numerators; the maximum values are used to compute gain factors. The forms of the resulting filters are based on the physical meanings of low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass filters, an intuitive idea which is easy to be understood. Moreover, each coefficient is believed to be simply calculated, an advantage which keeps the software-implemented crossover running smoothly even if crossover frequencies are being changed in real time. This characteristic allows users to efficiently adjust the bandwidths of the driver filters by subjective listening tests if objective measurements of loudspeaker parameters are unavailable. Instead of designing separate structures for a low-, mid-, and high-frequency driver filter, by using the proposed techniques we can implement one structure which merges three types of digital filters. Not only does the integration architecture operate with low computational cost, but its size is also compact. Design examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented methodology
There are an increasing number of binaural systems embedded with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), so listeners can experience virtual environments via conventional stereo loudspeakers or head- phones. As HRTFs vary from person to person, it is difficult to select appropriated HRTFs from already existing databases for users. Once the HRTFs in a binaural audio device hardly match the real ones of the users, poor localization happens especially on the cone of confusion. The most accurate way to obtain personalized HRTFs might be doing practical measurements. It is, however, expensive and time consuming. Modifying non-individualized HRTFs may be an effort-saving way, though the modifications are always accompanied by undesired audio distortion. This paper proposes a flexible HRTF adjustment system for users to define their own HRTFs. Also, the system can keep sounds from suffering intolerable distortion based on an objective measurement tool for evaluating the quality of processed audio.