In this study, a pilot-scale subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) was deployed to study landscape water treatment. The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of hydraulic loading on pollutant removal and the spatial distribution of biofilm properties in SWIS. Results showed that the efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal degraded as hydraulic loading increased. Furthermore, quantities of the biofilm properties parameter s increased with the hydraulic loading. Polysaccharide and protein levels ranged from 560 to 1110 μg/g filler and 60 to 190 μg/g filler, respectively, at a hydraulic loading of 0.2 m/d. At a hydraulic loading of 0.4 m/d, the quantities of polysaccharide and protein ranged from 1200 to 3300 μg/g filler and 80 to 290 μg/g filler, respectively. Biofilm intensity and biofilm activity per unit weight decreased with the increase in hydraulic loading.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) levels in environmental media have increased over the last 20-25 years in the world. In aquatic environments PBDEs were found to be accumulated along food chain and Endocrine disruptors toxicity. In this study PBDEs were investigated in sediment and fish tissues from Lake Chaohu in central eastern China. There were 10 PBDEs congeners detected out of all 41 PBDEs. BDE-47 was of the highest with 5.17 ng/g in sediment and 58.47 ng/g in fish. PBDEs were evenly distributed across the surface sediment in the whole lake. It implied that the main source of PBDEs may not be an inflow river like Nanfei. Tissue distribution patterns of PBDEs in four fish species were in the order of BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-100 > BDE-66 > BDE-138 > BDE-183 > BDE-154 > BDE-153. Octa- and deca-BDEs were below the detection limit. The concentrations of all PBDE congeners were higher in gills, livers, and kidneys than those in muscles and adipose tissue. Furthermore, PBDEs in different tissues had some different distribution patterns with fish size. Those discrepancies appeared to be correlated with the PBDEs pollution fluxes varying with the change of the year and their metabolism divergences in fish tissues.
Nano-sized yttria (Y2O3) powders were synthesized by a polymer solution route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as an organic carrier. The PVA polymer affected the dispersion of yttrium ions in precursor sol. In this study, three kinds of PVA polymer (different molecular weight) were applied for synthesis of yttria powder. The PVA type as well as calcination temperature had a strongly influence on the particle morphology. Single crystal nano wire particles were observed at the temperature of polymer burn out range and the size was dependent on the PVA type. The stable, fully crystallized yttria powder was obtained through the calcination at 800°C for 1 h. The yttria powder prepared with the high weight PVA (MW: 153,000) revealed a particle size of 30 nm with a surface area of 18.8 m2/g.
Heavy metal pollutants in the leachate of waste landfill are a potential threat to the environment. In this study, the feasibility of using municipal sewage sludge as barrier material for the containment of heavy metal pollutants from solid waste landfills was evaluated by compaction test and hydraulic conductivity test concerning compaction property, impermeability and heavy metal retardation. Results of the compaction test showed that the maximum dry density of 0.79 g·cm−3 was achieved at the optimum water content of about 60%. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted sewage sludge permeated with synthetic heavy metal solutions were in the range of 1.3×10−8 – 6.2×10−9 cm·s−1, less than 1.0 ×10−7cm·s−1 recommended by regulations for barrier materials. Chemical analyses on the effluent from the hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that the two target heavy metals, Zn and Cd in the permeants were all retarded by compacted sewage sludge, which might be attributed to the precipitation and adsorption of heavy metal ions. The results of this study suggest that specially prepared material from sewage sludge could be used as a barrier for waste landfills for its low permeability and strong retardation to heavy metal pollutants.
U-type ferrite typified by Ba4Co2Fe36O60 is used as a RAM (Radar Absorbing Materials) in the X-band (8-12 GHz). Ba4Co2Fe36O60 is known to have a complex crystal structure, which makes it difficult to obtain single phase and have low reproducibility. Previously known U-type ferrites have been fabricated based on a ceramic process that mixing (by a ball mill), calcining, grinding, binder mixing, drying, sieving, pressing and sintering. In contrast, the process of preparing the powder by the sol-gel method and its heat-treating is advantageous in that it can reduce the process steps and the required time. In addition, the precise stoichiometric control by the sol-gel method can effectively evaluate the effect of added or substituted elements. In this study investigates the crystal structure of Ba4Co2Fe36O60 synthesized by the sol-gel method and the morphology of U-type ferrite nano-powders according to various heat treatment conditions. Analysis of the crystal structure is used for XRD. Morphology and size are observed by SEM. In addition, VSM is performed to confirm the change of magnetic properties according to various heat treatment conditions.
The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) produced from Rhizobium radiobacter F2, designated as EPSF2, was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution. The optimum biosorption pH values were 5.0 for Pb(II) and 6.0 for Zn(II). Kinetics study revealed that the biosorption followed pseudo-first-order model well, and the equilibrium data fit the Langmuir model better. The adsorbed metal ions could be effectively desorbed by HCl. Desrobed EPSF2 regained 80% of the initial biosorption capacity after five cycles of biosorption-desorption-elution. These results demonstrated that EPSF2 could be a promising alternative for Pb(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solution.
To reduce the influence of the static unbalance on an infrared missile guidance system, a new static unbalance measure system for the gimbals axes has been developed. Considering the coupling effects caused by a mass eccentricity, the static balance condition and measure sequence for each gimbal axis are obtained. A novel static unbalance test approach is proposed after analyzing the dynamic model of the measured gimbal axis. This approach is to drive the measured gimbal axis to do sinusoidal reciprocating motion in a small angle and collect its drive currents in real time. Then the static unbalance of the measured gimbal axis can be obtained by the current multi-cycle integration. Also a measuring system using the proposed approach has been developed. A balanced simulator is used to verify the proposed approach by the load and repeatability tests. The results show the proposed approach enhances the efficiency of the static unbalance measurement, and the developed measuring system is able to achieve a high precision with a greater stability.
The densification behavior of H13 tool steel powder by dual speed laser scanning strategy have been characterized for selective laser melting process, one of powder bed fusion based metal 3d printing. Under limited given laser power, the laser re-melting increases the relative density and hardness of H13 tool steel with closing pores. The single melt-pool analysis shows that the pores are located on top area of melt pool when the scanning speed is over 400 mm/s while the low scanning speed of 200 mm/s generates pores beneath the melt pool in the form of keyhole mode with the high energy input from the laser. With the second laser scanning, the pores on top area of melt pools are efficiently closed with proper dual combination of scan speed. However pores located beneath the melt pools could not be removed by second laser scanning. When each layer of 3d printing are re-melted, the relative density and hardness are improved for most dual combination of scanning. Among the scan speed combination, the 600 mm/s by 400 mm/s leads to the highest relative density, 99.94 % with hardness of 53.5 HRC. This densification characterization with H13 tool steel laser re-melting can be efficiently applied for tool steel component manufacturing via metal 3d printing.
In this research, we investigated the effects of reduction atmospheres on the creation of the Mo-Si-B intermetallic compounds (IMC) during the heat treatments. For outstanding anti-oxidation and elevated mechanical strength at the ultrahigh temperature, we fabricated the uniformly dispersed IMC powders such as Mo5SiB2 (T2) and Mo3Si (A15) phases using the two steps of chemical reactions. Especially, in the second procedure, we studied the influence of the atmospheres (e.g. vacuum, argon, and hydrogen) on the synthesis of IMCs during the reduction. Furthermore, the newly produced IMCs were observed by SEM, XRD, and EDS to identify the phase of the compounds. We also calculated an amount of IMCs in the reduced powders depending on the atmosphere using the Reitveld refinement method. Consequently, it is found that hydrogen atmosphere was suitable for fabrication of IMC without other IMC phases.
In this study, two different compositions of submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and micron-structured chromium (4.66 μm) powders were mixed to fabricate Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys by vacuum hot-press sintering. The research imposed various hot-press sintering pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while the sintering temperature maintained at 1250°C for 1 h. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of the hot-press sintered Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were 1250°C at 50 MPa for 1 h. Also, the relative density reached 99.94%, the closed porosity decreased to 0.04% and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increased to 81.90 HRA and 448.53 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced to 1.58 × 104 S·cm–1. However, the grain growth generated during the high-temperature and high-pressure of the hot-press sintering process resulted in the grain coarsening phenomenon of the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys after 1250°C hot-press sintering at 50 MPa for 1 h. In addition, the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were fabricated with the submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (588 nm) powders showed more effective compaction than the micron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (4.66 μm) powders did. The closed porosity decreases to 0.02% and the hardness values increase to 83.23 HRA. However, the agglomeration phenomenon of the Cr phase and brittleness of the TiCr2 Laves phases easily led to a slight decrease in TRS (400.54 MPa).
This study proposes a surface profile and roughness measurement system for a fibre-optic interconnect based on optical interferometry. On the principle of Fizeau interferometer, an interference fringe is formed on the fibre end-face of the fibre-optic interconnect, and the fringe pattern is analysed using the Fast Fourier transform method to reconstruct the surface profile. However, as the obtained surface profile contains some amount of tilt, a rule for estimating this tilt value is developed in this paper. The actual fibre end-face surface profile is obtained by subtracting the estimated tilt amount from the surface profile, as calculated by the Fast Fourier transform method, and the corresponding surface roughness can be determined. The proposed system is characterized by non-contact measurement, and the sample is not coated with a reflector during measurement. According to the experimental results, the difference between the roughness measurement result of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the measurement result of this system is less than 3 nm.
To keep genetic diversity, flowering plants have developed a self-incompatibility system, which can prevent self-pollination. It has been reported that calcium concentration in pistil papilla cells was increased after self-pollination in transformed self-incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we found that CML27 changed its expression level for both mRNA and protein when compared to transcriptome and proteome. At the same time, CML27 was expressed in the anther and pistil at a high level and reached up to 5-fold up-regulated expression in the pistil at 1 h post-pollination when compared to 0 min. In order to find out potential proteins that may interact with BoCML27, BoCML27 was expressed in and isolated from E. coli. After its co-incubation with Brassica oleracea pistil proteins, the products were separated on SDS-PAGE gels. We found a specific band at the position between 130–180 kDa. Through LC-MS-MS (Q-TOF) analysis, eight proteins were identified from the band. The proteins include 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory (26S), Phospholipase D, alpha 2 (PLDα2) involved in Ca2+ binding and Coatomer subunit alpha-2-like (Coatomer) involved in vesicle mediated transport. All of these identified proteins provide new insights for the self-incompatibility response in B. oleracea, specific for increasing Ca2+ concentration in pistil papilla cells.
The magnetic properties of the U-type ferrite synthesized by a sol-gel process had studied by substituting cobalt with manganese or zinc in cobalt-based U-type ferrite. The substituted U-type ferrite showed a dominant crystal structure at a different substitution ratio of manganese and zinc. The change of the starting temperature of U-type ferrite formation according to substitutional elements was confirmed by TG-DTA analysis. In the case of manganese substitution, the starting temperature of U-type ferrite formation lowered, and on the contrary, when zinc was substituted, it became higher. The magnetic properties of the U-type ferrite substituted with manganese showed a tendency that the saturation magnetization was decreased and the coercivity was increased as the manganese ratio increased. The highest saturation magnetization was 57.9 emu/g in the specific composition (Ba4Co0.5Zn1.5Fe36O60) substituted with zinc.
This study investigates several factors that have not been specified in the standard for dynamic stiffness, compressibility, and long-term deformation; these factors can be used to evaluate the acoustic and physical performances of resilient materials. The study is intended to provide basic data for deriving the factors that need to be additionally reviewed through the standards. Since magnitude of dynamic stiffness changes with an increase in loading time, it is necessary to examine the setting of the loading time for a load plate under test conditions. Samples of size 300×300 mm, rather than 200×200 mm, yielded more reliable results for compressibility measurement. Since the test to infer long-term deformation of resilient materials after a period of 10 years in some samples showed variation characteristics different from those specified in the standards, it is recommended that the test method should be reviewed through ongoing research.
As-cast Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y and Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y (wt%) alloys were prepared and extruded at 260 oC with an extrusion ratio of 25. The microstructure and mechanical behavior of as-cast and extruded alloys are reported and discussed. The results show that Mg-6Li-1.2Zn- 1.2Y alloy is composed of α-Mg, β-Li, and W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phases while Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy contains α-Mg, β-Li, W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phase and X-Mg12ZnY. After hot extrusion, the microstructure of specimens is refined and the average grains size of extruded alloys is 15 μm. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the extrusion, leading to grain refinement of test alloys. Both the strength and elongation of test alloys are improved by extrusion. The extruded Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy possesses an ultimate strength of 225 MPa with an elongation of 18% while the strength and elongation of Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y alloy are 206 MPa and 28%, respectively. The X-phase in Mg-6Li-0.3Zn- 0.6Y is beneficial to the improvement of strength, but will lead to the decrease of ductility.