The study aimed to examine the use of Geomagnetic Anomaly Detection (GAD) to locate the buried ferromagnetic pipeline defects without exposing them. However, the accuracy of GAD is limited by the background noise. In the present work, we propose an approximate entropy noise suppression (AENS) method based on Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) for detection of pipeline defects. The proposed method is capable of reconstructing the magnetic field signals and extracting weak anomaly signals that are submerged in the background noise, which was employed to construct an effective detector of anomalous signals. The internal parameters of VMD were optimized by the Scale–Space algorithm, and their anti-noise performance was compared. The results show that the proposed method can remove the background noise in high-noise background geomagnetic field environments. Experiments were carried out in our laboratory and evaluation results of inspection data were analysed; the feasibility of GAD is validated when used in the application to detection of buried pipeline defects.
This paper presents a geomagnetic detection method for pipeline defects using complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and wavelet energy product (WEP) – Teager energy operator (TEO), which improves detection accuracy and defect identification ability as encountering strong inference noise. The measured signal is first subtly decomposed via CEEMDAN into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are then distinguished by the Hurst exponent to reconstruct the filtered signal. Subsequently, the scale signals are obtained by using gradient calculation and discrete wavelet transform and are then fused by using WEP. Finally, TEO is implemented to enhance defect signal amplitude, completing geomagnetic detection of pipeline defects. The simulation results created by magnetic dipole in a noisy environment, indoor experiment results and field testing results certify that the proposed method outperforms ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-gradient, EEMD-WEP-TEO, CEEMDAN-gradient in terms of detection deviation, peak side-lobe ratio (PSLR) and integrated side-lobe ratio (ISLR).