Th e forearm is a body region of numerous anatomical variations. Due to its favorable anatomy fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle (FDS) is commonly used in tendon transfer surgeries. In this study a unique combination of abnormalities was found in a single forearm: the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle penetrated by the median nerve, one of the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis tendons early division and absence of the palmaris longus muscle. Described variation potentially may lead to the clinical manifestation of the median nerve compression and should be also considered during FDS surgery.
A personal data referring to the scaphoid skull housed in the Department of Anatomy of the Jagiellonian University, Medical College was established thanks to reviewing 19th century literature performed by Dr. Sofi caru. We received information that the skull had belonged to an adult man who was a carpenter, born at Cracow. Th e original anthropometrical study of this skull was performed by prof. Kopernicki 19th century.
Telocyte (TC) is an interstitial cell type with a small cellular body and extremely long tentacle-like extensions. TCs were discovered a decade ago and have specific morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical and secretome profi les, electrophysiological properties, microRNA expression. Moreover, they are different in gene expression from other cells. TCs play an important role in plenty of processes. Apparently, they are involved in homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration, repair, embryogenesis, angiogenesis and even tumorigenesis. “Telocytes need the world”, was emphasized by Professor Popescu and it will be actual at any time. This review summarizes particular features of TCs in different organs and systems, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Introduction: Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. There are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocytes in all regions of the human uterus to explain their involvement in leiomyoma development. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from a healthy and myomatous uterus were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology and collagen deposits. Results: Telocytes were detected in the cervix, corpus of the uterus and leiomyoma. The density of telocytes in fibroid foci was reduced compared with normal myometrium. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the existence of telocytes in all parts of the human body affected and unaff ected by leiomyoma of the uterus. In addition, telocytes were also present in leiomyoma foci. Our results suggest that the reduced density of telocytes is important for the pathomechanisms of myometrial growth, demonstrating its value as a main component of the myomatous architecture.
To determine the role of the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin on various aspects of the functioning of the organism, the gland can be easily surgically removed in rats within 18 hours a fter birth. We performed pinealectomy in rats in a state of deep hypothermia under an operating microscope, using a micro-suction device of our own construction. The rats were induced into a state of suspended animation by placing them in the freezing compartment at minus 20 Celsius degrees. The cessation of respiration and heart beat lasted for about 15 minutes. During that time the pinealectomy was performed. In some cases there was minor hemorrhage that was easily controlled. There were no major side effects or mortality following surgery. All rats recovered within 15 minutes after the end of the procedure. The pinealectomy procedure described in this study is simple, rapid, effective and safe, and can be easily performed with instruments commonly available in most laboratories.
Autonomic nervous system of the pelvis is still poorly understood. Every year more and more pelvic procedures are carried out on patients suff ering from diff erent pelvic disorders what leads to numerous pelvic dysfunctions. Authors tried to review, starting from historical and clinical background, the most important reports on anatomy of the pelvic autonomic plexuses. We also pay attention to complete lack of knowledge of students of medicine on the autonomic nervous structures in the area studied. We present anatomical description of the pelvic plexuses including their visceral branches and anatomy of surrounding pelvic tissues which still remains unclear. More and more attention is paid to the topography of the plexuses specially because of new pain releasing techniques — neurolysies.
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to defi ne the total number of septa and the total number of antra in the sphenoid sinuses (created as a result of the presence of additional septa), as well as the relation between the number of the septa and their location in the adult population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of the computed tomography (CT) scans of the paranasal sinuses of 296 patients (147 females and 149 males), who did not present any pathology in the sphenoid sinuses. The CT scans of the paranasal sinuses were done with the spiral CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) by using a standard procedure, in the option Siemens CARE Dose 4D, without using any contrast medium. After obtaining the transverse planes, the frontal and sagittal planes were created using secondary reconstruction tool (multiplans reconstruction — MPR). Results: The analysis of the obtained images in the transverse plane and secondary CT reconstructions has shown the presence of only one sphenoid septum (main septum — MS) in 21.96% of the patients, which divided the sphenoid sinus into two sphenoid antra. In 78.04% of the patients, there were more than one sphenoid septa present in the posterior part of the sphenoid sinuses, hence there were additional septa (AS) present. One AS was present in 22.97% of the patients. The most common variant — two AS — was found in 32.09% of the cases. The presence of more than two AS was found in the following number of patients: three AS in 9.8%, four AS in 7.09%, five AS in 1.69%, six AS in 3.04% and seven AS in 1.01%. Th e rarest variant was the presence of more than seven AS: eight AS in 0.34% and nine AS also in 0.34%. Th ere were no sphenoid sinuses that would have more than nine AS in the researched material. Conclusions: Due to the high incidence of the anatomical variants of the paranasal sinuses, a CT scan is recommended in all patients before a planned surgery in order to avoid the potential complications that might arise as a result of the complicated structure of the paranasal sinuses.