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Morocco is basically an agricultural country; almost 40% of the workforce is employed in this sector. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-inhabiting pathogen which can infect more than 300 plant species, although most host species are symptomless. Until relatively recently, X. fastidiosa was primarily limited to North and South America, but in 2013 a widespread epidemic of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in southeastern Italy, and later several cases of X. fastidiosa outbreaks have been reported in other European countries (France, Germany and Spain). Following these recently confirmed findings of X. fastidiosa in the European Union, this bacterium has become a serious threat to the Moroccan flora. The national phytosanitary authorities have adopted several measures to prevent the introduction of X. fastidiosa into the national territory by deciding, inter alia, to suspend importation of host plant species to the bacterium from infected areas. This paper presents the phytosanitary risk of this bacterium in Morocco.
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