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Abstract

In this paper, effect of Hall currents on the thermal instability of couple-stress fluid permeated with dust particles has been considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, dust particles and Hall currents are found to have destabilizing effect while couple stresses have stabilizing effect on the system. Magnetic field induced by Hall currents has stabilizing/destabilizing effect under certain conditions. It is found that due to the presence of Hall currents (hence magnetic field), oscillatory modes are produced which were non-existent in their absence.
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Abstract

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
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Abstract

The photocatalytic, sonolytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) using heterogeneous (TiO2) was investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in slurry mode with artificial UV 125 watt medium pressure mercury lamp coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 33+3 KHz) for sonication of the slurry. The degradation of compound was studied in terms of first order kinetics. The catalyst concentration was optimized at 1.5 gL-1, pH at 7 and oxidant concentration at 1.5 gL-1. The results obtained were quite appreciable as 80% degradation was obtained for photocatalytic treatment in 120 minutes whereas, ultrasound imparting synergistic effect as degradation achieved 96% increase in 90 minutes during sonophotocatalysis. The degradation follows the trend sonophotocatalysis > photocatalysis > sonocatalytic > sonolysis. The results of sonophotocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical compound showed that it could be used as efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the complete degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants which will increase the chances for the reuse of wastewater.
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