Constantly developing nanotechnology provides the possibility of manufacturing nanostructured composites with a polymer matrix doped with ceramic nanoparticles, including ZnO. A specific feature of polymers, i.e. ceramic composite materials, is an amelioration in physical properties for polymer matrix and reinforcement. The aim of the paper was to produce thin fibrous composite mats, reinforced with ZnO nanoparticles and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix obtained by means of the electrospinning process and then examining the influence of the strength of the reinforcement on the morphology and optical properties of the composite nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the fibrous mats was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). UV –Vis spectroscopy allowed to examine the impact of zinc oxide on the optical properties of PVP/ZnO nanofibers and to investigate the width of the energy gap.