The article is a part of materials regarding current problems of Polish science and higher education. It provides an in-depth analysis of the Act on degrees and academic titles as well as several other laws which introduce the so-called Ph.D. implementation in Poland. These laws were adopted by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in April 2017. The author focuses on several problems, discussing them in separate chapters. The article also tries to predict the far-reaching results of the new rules. At the same time, the author proposes specific solutions that should be included in the future in the Act on degrees and academic titles, or in the Act of industrial property. They should eliminate the negative effects of conflicts between the provisions of various legal acts.
The article presents a recent find of a half of Sultan Mahmud II’s gold coin dated at 1828–1829 AD and presents it in the context of other finds of Ottoman coins in the Polish lands till the beginning of the twentieth century. The authors point out that this is probably the first find of this ruler’s gold coin and one of few recorded finds of Mahmud II’s coins in the former and present territory of Poland.