The growth kinetics of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting made from ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-3 was investigated. To produce homogenous metal matrix in test samples, the normalising and ferritising annealing was carried out. Studies showed a heterogeneous structure of cast iron with varying content of the phases formed. This was followed by hot dip galvanising treatment at 450°C to capture the growth kinetics of the zinc coating (the time of the treatment ranged from 60 to 600 seconds). Nonlinear estimation of the determined growth kinetics of the alloyed layer of a zinc coating was made and an equation of the zinc coating growth was derived. Based on the results of the investigations it was concluded that thickness of the zinc coating formed on the surface of casting with a 100% pearlitic matrix makes 55% of the thickness of coating formed on the surface in 100% ferritic.
Studies were conducted on a zinc coating produced on the surface of ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-7 to determine the eutectic grain effect. For this purpose, castings with a wall thickness of 5 to 30 mm were made and the resulting structure was examined. To obtain a homogeneous metal matrix, samples were subjected to a ferritising annealing treatment. To enlarge the reaction surface, the top layer was removed from casting by machining. Then hot dip galvanising treatment was performed at 450°C to capture the kinetics of growth of the zinc coating (in the period from 60 to 600 seconds). Analysing the test results it was found that within the same time of hot dip galvanising, the differences in the resulting zinc coating thickness on samples taken from castings with different wall cross-sections were small but could, particularly for shorter times of treatment, reduce the continuity of the alloyed layer of the zinc coating.
The paper presents the results of investigations of the growth of protective coating on the surface of ductile iron casting during the hot-dip galvanizing treatment. Ductile iron of the EN-GJS-600-3 grade was melted and two moulds made by different technologies were poured to obtain castings with different surface roughness parameters. After the determination of surface roughness, the hot-dip galvanizing treatment was carried out. Based on the results of investigations, the effect of casting surface roughness on the kinetics of the zinc coating growth was evaluated. It was found that surface roughness exerts an important effect on the thickness of produced zinc coating
The article presents results of heat treatment on the high chromium cast iron. The study was carrying out on samples cut from the casting made from chromium cast iron. Those were hardened at different temperatures, then tempered and soft annealed. The heat treatment was performed in a laboratory chamber furnace in the Department of Engineering Alloys and Composites at Faculty of Foundry Engineering AGH. At each stage of the heat treatment the hardness was measured by Vickers and Rockwell methods, and the microscope images were done. Additionally based on images from the optical microscope the microstructure was assessed. Based on these results, the effect of hardening, tempering and soft annealing on the microstructure and hardness of high chromium cast iron was studied. Next the effects of different hardening temperatures on the properties of high chromium cast iron were compared. The study led to systemize the literature data of the parameters of heat treatment of high chromium cast iron, and optimal conditions for heat treatment was proposed for casts of similar properties and parameters.
This study presents an analysis of aluminium cast iron structure (as-cast condition) which are used in high temperatures. While producing casts of aluminium iron, the major influence has been to preserve the structure of the technological process parameters. The addition of V, Ti, Cr to an Fe-C-Al alloy leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in an aluminium cast iron structure and thereby improve the production process. V and Ti additions to aluminium cast iron allow the development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened the Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.
Metal alloys with matrix based on an Fe-Al system are generally considered materials for high-temperature applications. Their main advantages are compact crystallographic structure, long-range ordering and structural stability at high temperatures. These materials are based on an intermetallic phase of FeAl or Fe3Al, which is stable in the range from room temperature up to the melting point of 1240°C. Their application at high temperatures is also beneficial because of the low cost of production, very good resistance to oxidation and corrosion, and high mechanical strength. The casting alloy the structure of which includes the FeAl phase is, among others, highaluminium cast iron. This study has been devoted to the determination of the effect of vanadium and titanium on the transformation of the high-aluminium cast iron structure into an in-situ FeAl-VC composite.
The article presents the method to assess the diffusion coefficient D in the sub-layer of intermetallic phases formed during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7. Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most popular forms of long-term protection of Fe-C alloys against corrosion. The process for producing a protective layer of sufficient quality is closely related to diffusion of atoms of zinc and iron. The simulation consist in performed a hot-dip galvanizing in laboratory condition above Fe-C alloys, in the Department of Engineering of Cast Alloys and Composites. Galvanizing time ranged from 15 to 300 seconds. Then metallographic specimens were prepared, intermetallic layers were measured and diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated. It was found that the diffusion coefficient obtained during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and zinc is about two orders of magnitude less than the coefficient obtained on ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7.
The paper presents results of Ti-addition to High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) on the structure and selected mechanical properties. For this study casted two sets of cylinders with dimensions ø20 mm, ø15 mm x 250 mm, for the High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) and with the 4% by mass Ti-addition. Melts were performed in the induction furnace crucible capacity of 15 kg. During the heats the cup with installed S type thermocouple was poured to record the cooling curves. The cylinders were subjected to the static bending strength test. Samples for the test microstructure and Rockwell hardness were cut from the cylinders. The study shows that the addition of titanium had an impact on the structure and thus the properties of High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI). In subsequent studies, through an appropriate choice of chemical composition and proper process control, it is planned to obtain in the structure the titanium carbides TiC and chromium carbides with type (Cr, Fe)7C3.
Preliminary results of field investigations and analysis of air photos of the Tjörn Valley region (Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen) are presented. The youngest, Quaternary deposits and landforms were mapped. Reconstruction of the last advance and retreat of the Tjörndals Glacier is also described.
Results of geological interpretation of air photos from selected parts of southern Spitsbergen are presented. Quaternary and some older landforms and deposits distinguished during the photointerpretation are described on the basis of their discrimination features, as well as origin and spatial realtions. On this ground a code for interpretation of relief elements in polar areas was prepared. A geological interpretation of air photos completed by absolute datings of different deposits enabled to connect studied landforms with the Late Quaternary main glacial episodes. Sea and glacier extents in the northwestern Sörkapp Land, from the Wedel Jarlsberg Land Glaciation (Saale) to the Little Ice Age (Holocene) are presented.
The present investigation focuses on the study of the influence of titanium inoculation on tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron. Studies of tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron, in particularly the wear resistance are important because of the special application of this material. High Chromium Cast Iron is widely used for parts that require high wear resistance for example the slurry pumps, brick dies, several pieces of mine drilling equipment, rock machining equipment, and similar ones. Presented research described the effects of various amounts of Fe-Ti as an inoculant for wear resistance. The results of wear resistance were collated with microstructural analysis. The melts were conducted in industrial conditions. The inoculation was carried out on the stream of liquid metal. The following amount of inoculants have been used; 0.17% Fe-Ti, 0.33% Fe-Ti and 0.66% Fe-Ti. The tests were performed on the machine type MAN. The assessment of wear resistance was made on the basis of the weight loss. The experimental results indicate that inoculation improve the wear resistance. In every sample after inoculation the wear resistance was at least 20% higher than the reference sample. The best result, thus the smallest wear loss was achieved for inoculation by 0.66% Fe-Ti. There is the correlation between the changing in microstructure and wear resistance. With greater amount of titanium the microstructure is finer. More fine carbides do not crumbling so quickly from the matrix, improving the wear resistance.
The paper presents results of the possibility of adapting the Althoff-Radtke test for High Chromium Cast Iron. The Althoff-Radtke test is a clump attempt used for steel. The Althoff-Radtke test has four different lengths of clamp which qualifies it as a test to quantitatively take into account different kinds of shrinkage ΔL. The length of the slot of the cracked corner and the length of each staple (50 - 350 mm) are the parameters tendency to cast cracks. Castings of white cast iron have a high tendency to hot cracking due to the large range of solidification temperatures, unfavorable kinetics parameters of shrinkage, and especially a lack of expansion before shrinkage. Shrinkage of high chromium white cast iron is similar to the shrinkage of cast steel, and is approximately 2%. Therefore it is important to test susceptibility to hot cracks. Research was carried out under industrial conditions. Four melts were performed, one of the initial chemical composition and the other three modified by different amounts of Fe-Ti, respectively, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% Fe-Ti. The propensity for hot cracking was based on the observation of the dark surface in the corner of the sample. The study shows that the Althoff-Radtke test can be adapted to determine the tendency for hot cracking of high chromium cast iron. It should however be noted that the test results cannot be compared with those for other alloys.
The modification is a widespread method of improving the strength properties of cast iron. The impact in terms of increasing amounts of eutectic grains has been thoroughly studied while the issue of the impact on the mechanical properties of primary austenite grains has not been studied in depth yet. The paper presents the study of both aspects. The methodology was to conduct the melting cast iron with flake graphite, then modifying the alloy by two sets of modifiers: the commercial modifier, and a mixture of iron powder with a commercial inoculant. The DAAS test was carried out to identify the primary austenite grains. The degree of supercooling was determined and the UTS test was performed as well. Additionally carried out the metallographic specimen allowing for counting grains. It can be concluded that the introduction of the iron powder significantly improved the number of austenite primary grains which resulted in an increase in tensile strength UTS.
Landforms of aeolian origin from western Sörkapp Land, Spitsbergen, are described. Development of aeolian hillocks, sand banks and drifts as well as of aeolian covers on marine beaches and permafrost hillocks is discussed in connection with conditions of transport and deposition. Horizons of fossil organic matter found in some forms prove their persistence.
The most popular field methods of measurements of raised marine beach altitudes used by geomorphologists are presented. Compared data from clisimeter routes, altimeter routes and from readings from a photogeological map and directly from air photos compose the profiles. Advantages and disavantages of each method are discussed.
Field mapping and analysis of air photos enabled to prepare a photogeological map of Treskelen-Hyrnefjellet-Kruseryggen area in scale of 1:10,000. Slope, glacial and nival landforms and sediments, and ten raised marine beaches were distinguished. Morphogenetic evolution of the area is also presented, with discussion of probable glacier advances and land uplift during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene.