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Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies on the changes in the PAHs concentration during pre-filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) processes. In the study, biologically treated wastewater (after denitrification and nitrification processes), discharged from the biological treatment plant and used in coke plant, was used. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in order to qualify and quantify the PAHs. Sixteen PAHs listed by EPA were determined. The wastewater samples were collected three fold and initially characterized for the concentration of nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, COD, TOC and pH. In the first step, wastewater was filtrated on the sand bed. Total concentration of 16 PAHs in the treated wastewater before initial filtration was in the range of 44.8‒53.5 mg/L. During the process the decrease in the concentration of the most studied hydrocarbons was observed. Concentration of PAHs after initial filtration ranged from 21.9 to 38.3 μg/L. After the initial filtration process the wastewater flew to the ultrafiltration module and then was separated on the membrane (type ZW-10). The total concentration of 16 PAHs in the process of ultrafiltration was in the range of 8.9‒19.3 mg/L. The efficiency of removal of PAHs from coke wastewater in the process of ultrafiltration equaled 66.6%. Taking into account the initial filtration, the total degree of removal of PAHs reached 85%. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using the ultrafiltration process with the initial filtration as additional process in the coke wastewater treatment.
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Abstract

Celem przeprowadzonego eksperymentu było zbadanie możliwości zastosowania upraw roślin energetycznych, w postaci mozgi trzcinowatej (Phalaris arundinacea), w procesie fitoremediacji terenów zanieczyszczonych herbicydami z grupy fenoksykwasów (2,4-D, MCPA) oraz wybranymi WWA (suma 10 WWA zgodnie z Dz.U. 2016, 1395). Dodatkowo, w ramach doświadczenia przeprowadzono ocenę kinetyki wzrostu i rozwoju proponowanego gatunku roślin w odniesieniu do nawożenia gleby kompostem pochodzenia odpadowego, nano ditlenkiem krzemu oraz mieszanką tych materiałów. Z akres wykonanych badań obejmował dwumiesięczny test donicowy w warunkach ex-situ z wykorzystaniem dwóch serii badawczych (seria 1 – kontrole bez roślin; seria 2 – próby z roślinami). Wyniki uzyskane w trakcie realizacji prac badawczych, pozwoliły wykazać, iż zastosowanie P. arundinacea, w charakterze „czynnika remediacyjnego”, pozwala na znaczące zwiększenie efektywności usunięcia zanieczyszczeń organicznych z gleby. Niemniej jednak zaznaczyć należy, iż najlepsze efekty zarówno w kontekście efektywności procesu, jak i ilości pozyskiwanej biomasy, uzyskane zostały pod wpływem aplikacji nawozu organicznego w postaci kompostu. Dodatkowo zaobserwowano, iż stosowanie materiałów o wysokich właściwościach sorpcyjnych, w charakterze substancji współnawożącej, może znacząco zwiększyć efektywność biotycznych procesów rozkładu zanieczyszczeń organicznych w glebie. Podsumowując można stwierdzić, że proponowana technologia fitoremediacji charakteryzuje się wysoką efektywnością działania, a jej praktyczna implementacja przyczynić się może dodatkowo do zwiększenia udziału produkcji energii z alternatywnych form paliw odnawialnych.
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Abstract

Municipal waste management has been an area of special interest of the European Commission (EC) for many years. In 2018, the EC pointed out issues related to municipal waste management as an important element of the monitoring framework for the transition towards a circular economy (CE), which is currently a priority in the economic policy of the European Union (EU). In the presented monitoring framework, 10 CE indicators were identified, among which issues related to municipal waste appear directly in two areas of the CE – in the field of production and in the field of waste management, and indirectly – un two other areas – secondary raw materials, and competitiveness and innovation. The paper presents changes in the management of municipal waste in Poland in the context of the implementation of the CE assumptions, a discussion of the results of CE indicators in two areas of the CE monitoring framework in Poland (production and waste management), and a comparison of the results against other European countries. In Poland, tasks related to the implementation of municipal waste management from July 1, 2013 are the responsibility of the municipality, which is obliged to ensure the conditions for the system of selective collection and collection of municipal waste from residents, as well as the construction, maintenance and operation of regional municipal waste treatment installations (RIPOK). The municipality is also committed to the proper management of municipal waste, in accordance with the European waste management hierarchy, whose overriding objective is to prevent waste formation and limiting its amount, then recycling and other forms of disposal, incineration and safe storage. The study analyzed changes in the value of two selected CE indicators, i.e. (1) the municipal waste generation indicator, in the area of production and (2) the municipal waste recycling indicator, in the area of waste management. For this purpose, statistical data of the Central Statistical Office (GUS) and Eurostat were used. Data has been presented since 2014, i.e. from the moment of initiating the need to move to the CE in the EU. In recent years, there has been an increase in the amount of municipal waste generated in Poland as well as in the EU. According to Eurostat, the amount of municipal waste generated per one inhabitant of Poland increased from 272 kg in 2014 to 315 kg in 2017. It should be noted that the average amount of municipal waste generated in Poland in 2017 was one of the lowest in EU, with a European average of 486 kg/person. Poland has achieved lower levels of municipal waste recycling (33.9%) than the European average (46%). The reason for Poland’s worse results in the recycling of municipal waste may be, among others, the lack of sufficiently developed waste processing infrastructure, operating in other countries such as Germany and Denmark, and definitely higher public awareness of the issue of municipal waste in developed countries. Municipal waste management in Poland faces a number of challenges in the implementation of GOZ, primarily in terms of achieving the recycling values imposed by the EC, up to a minimum of 55% by 2025.
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Abstract

A novel herbicidal controlled release formulation composed of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) chemically bonded to biodegradable (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers was investigated. The synthesis of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid oligomers was carried out via the ring opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone initiated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic potassium salt in the presence of complexing agents. The formed oligomers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry in order to fi nd out their molar mass distribution and molecular structures. An assessment of biological effectiveness of the obtained herbicidal formulation was carried out in the greenhouse vs. Sinapis alba var. Nakielska. A promotion of the controlled release formulation with decreased water solubility and with low vapor pressure of the active ingredient, instead of traditional formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid may help to ensure a greater safety for workers and reduce the risk of dissemination of the active ingredient in the soil profi le.
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