It is shown that heat energy transfer from the source to the medium is accompanied by rheological transitions. Physical parameters of the medium change in the rheological transition zone due to heat energy flow transfer at a certain speed. It is shown that use of linear gradient laws during description of heat energy transfer processes leads to great differences between theoretical and experimental results, as well as the paradox of infinite spreading speed of disturbances of temperature fields. For mathematical description of heat energy transfer processes in mediums, it is proposed to use the method of irreversible rheological transitions and zero gradient, thus providing solutions of nonlinear differential equations in analytical form.
Vapordynamic thermosyphon (VDT) is an efficient heat transfer device. The two-phase flow generation and dynamic interaction between the liquid slugs and vapor bubbles in the annular minichannel of the VDT condenser are the main features of such thermosyphon, which allowed to increase its thermodynamic efficiency. VDT can transfer heat in horizontal position over a long distance. The condenser is nearly isothermal with the length of tens of meters. The VDT evaporators may have different forms. Some practical applications of VDT are considered.