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Number of results: 8
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Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of a diclofenac sodium was investigated in swine. A single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 5% diclofenac sodium (concentration = 2.5 mg · kg-1) was administered to 8 healthy pigs according to a two-period crossover design. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis with DAS2.1.1 software. After a single i.v. administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium injection in swine were as follows: the elimination half-time (T1/2β) was 1.32±0.34 h; the area under the curve (AUC) was (55.50±5.50 μg · mL-1 h; the mean residence time (MRT) was 1.60±0.28 h; the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.50±0.05 L · kg-1; and the body clearance (CLB) was 0.26±0.04 L · (h · kg)-1. After the single i.m. administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak time (Tmax) was 1.19±0.26 h; and peak concentration (Cmax) was 11.61±5.99 μg mL-1. The diclofenac sodium has the following pharmacokinetic characteristics in swine: rapid absorption and elimination; high peak concentration; and bioavailability.
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Abstract

Tight junction proteins are important for the maintenance and repair of the intestinal mucosal barrier. The present study investigated relationships among tight junction protein gene expres- sion, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets. We compared the expression of six tight junction proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, Occludin, Claudin-1, Claudin-4, and Claudin-5) between seven-day-old piglets infected with PEDV and normal piglets, as well as in PEDV-infected porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). We also evaluated differences in mucosal morphology between PEDV-infected and normal piglets. The expression of six tight junction protein genes was lower in PEDV-infected piglets than in the normal animals. The expression of ZO-1, ZO-2, Occludin, and Claudin-4 in the intestine tissue was significantly lower (p<0.05) in PEDV-infected than in normal piglets. The expression of Claudin-5 in the jejunum was significantly lower in PEDV-infected piglets than in the normal animals (p<0.01). The expression of Claudin-1 and Claudin-5 genes in the ileum was signifi- cantly higher in PEDV-infected piglets than in normal piglets (p<0.01). Morphologically, the intestinal mucosa in PEDV-infected piglets exhibited clear pathological changes, including breakage and shedding of intestinal villi. In PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, the mRNA expression of the six tight junction proteins showed a downward trend; in particular, the expression of the Occludin and Claudin-4 genes was significantly lower (p<0.01). These data suggest that the expression of these six tight junction proteins, especially Occludin and Claudin-4, plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier and resistance to PEDV infection in piglets.
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Abstract

Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects wild and domestic Canidae worldwide. The hemag- glutinin (H) gene has the highest genetic variation in the genome of this virus. Thus, the H gene is commonly used for lineage identification and genetic analyses. In order to study the genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of CDV strains prevalent in China, 132 samples were collected from domestic dogs with suspected CDV infection, 58 samples were confirmed to be positive, and the H gene was successfully amplified from 15 samples. The epidemic strain was identified as type Asia-1 and the novel mutations, A51T, V58I, R179K and D262N, were detected in this strain. Isolated strains, BJ16B53, BJ16B14, and BJ17B8, were used for an animal infection experiment in raccoon dogs. BJ16B53 and BJ16B14 were found to cause clinical symptoms, death, and exten- sive lesions in various organs. These results are expected to facilitate the development of effective strategies to monitor and control CDV infection in China.
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