The removal of benzene (B) and toluene (T) from aqueous solution by multi walled, single walled, and hybrid carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, SWCNTs, and HCNTs) was evaluated for a nanomaterial dose of 1 g/l, concentration of 10-100 mg/l, and pH 7. The equilibrium amount removed by SWCNTs (B: 9.98 mg/g and T: 9.96 mg/g) was higher than for MWCNTs and HCNTs. Toluene has a higher adsorption tendency on CNTs than benzene, which is related to the increasing water solubility and the decreasing molecular weight of the compounds. The SWCNTs performed better for B and T sorption than the MWCNTs and HCNTs. Isotherms study based on isofit program indicate that the Generalized Langmuir-Freundlich (GLF) isotherm expression provides the best fit for benzene sorption, and that Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm is the best fit for toluene adsorption by SWCNT. SWCNTs are efficient B and T adsorbents and possess good potential applications to water and wastewater treatment and maintain water of high quality that could be used for cleaning up environmental pollution.
Heat and mass transfer stretched flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Jeffrey fluid has been studied numerically. Nanoparticles are suspended in the base fluid and it has many applications such as cooling of engines, thermal absorption systems, lubricants fuel cell, nanodrug delivery system and so on. Temperature dependent variable thermal conductivity with Rosseland approximation is taken into account and suction effect is employed in the boundary conditions. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into set of ordinary differential equations using selected similarity transformations, which are then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Felhberg fourth-fifth order method along with shooting technique. The flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics with local Nusselt number for various physical parameters are presented graphically and a detailed discussion regarding the effect of flow parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are provided. It is found that, increase of variable thermal conductivity, radiation, Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter increases the rate of heat transfer. Local Nusselt number has been computed for various parameters and it is observed that, in the presence of variable thermal conductivity and Rosseland approximation, heat transfer characteristics are higher as compared to the constant thermal conductivity and linear thermal radiation.
Single crystalline cesium doped ZnO nanorods with homogeneous size and shape were grown hydrothermally on ITO substrates that are presented in our previous work. According to the previous work, XRD analysis showed that cesium doped ZnO nanorods are wurtzite single crystals and are grown preferentially along the c-axis. Also, the electrical conductivity of doped ZnO showed higher values for the 1% cesium, which confirmed incorporation of the cesium dopant. Cesium doped ZnO nanorods are suitable candidates for applications in solar cells. So, in this research, we employed cesium doped ZnO nanorods with the different dopant concentration in inverted polymer solar cell. By comparing the effect of doped ZnO nanorods with diverse dopant concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2%) on the performance of devices, 1.0% cesium doped ZnO was found as the most effective doping level among the selected doping concentrations. Also, using 1.0% cesium doped ZnO nanorods, Jsc of 8.21 mA/cm², Voc of 0.541V and Fill Factor of 63.01% were achieved, which led to power conversion efficiency of 2.80%.