Fourteen symposia on early/lower vertebrates have taken place over the last 50 years, usually at about four year intervals. An average 60 participants have taken part at these symposia, with over one hundred occasionally. The results of the symposia have been published in proceedings. The symposia started honoring E. A:son Stensiö and E. Jarvik. Honors were taken up at the 11th symposium in Uppsala again. Since the 13th symposium a Stensiö award is also given to young researchers in the field.
This article traces the process by which Ricoeur establishes the character of the discipline of history as a form of narration which expresses the relation between the experience of ‘belonging-to-history’ and the capacity to place this experience at a distance and, thereby, to experience it reflectively.
Drinking fresh water, turning the lights on, travelling by tram, calling our family, or getting a medical treatment are usual activities, but the underlying SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems like CIS (Critical Infrastructure Systems), ICS (Industrial Control Systems) or DCS (Distributed Control Systems) were always the target of many types of attacks, endangered the above mentioned simple activities. During the last decades because of the fast spread of the internet based services and the continuous technical development these systems become more vulnerable than ever. Full reconstruction and innovative changes in older SCADA systems has high cost, and it is not always rewarding. Communication protocols as Modbus (1979) serve as a main basis for SCADA systems, so security of Modbus has a major impact of the security of SCADA systems. Our paper raises and answers questions about the security of the Modbus RTU protocol. We focus on the serial Modbus protocol, because in that method we found many unsolved problems, like lack of authentication of the participants, lack of secure channel and so on. The aim of this paper to propose a secure communication alternative for Modbus RTU @ RS485 wire. The main advantage of the proposed method is the coexistence with traditional slaves and bus systems and only software update is necessary
In this article, we review the research state of the bullwhip effect in supply chains with stochastic lead times. We analyze problems arising in a supply chain when lead times are not deterministic. Using real data from a supply chain, we confirm that lead times are stochastic and can be modeled by a sequence of independent identically distributed random variables. This underlines the need to further study supply chains with stochastic lead times and model the behavior of such chains.