The paper presents the results of diachronic analysis of independent grammatical morphemes which function in the grammatical systems of Chadic languages. The following markers are being considered: genitive-linking morpheme, subject and object markers, copula, focus marker. Etymologically, the markers are traced back to Chadic (and Afroasiatic) system of determiners identified by the three phonological elements, namely *n, *t, and *k which have their vestiges in contemporary systems. It is claimed that what is a retention on phonological ground, contributes to innovation processes on the grammatical level.
The article presents the analysis of the rules of punctuation concentrated on the use of a comma in Spanish language. Nevertheless, in the introduction the author cite several exemples to show the differences and similarities between the use of a comma in Spanish, Polish, Russian, Czech, French, English and German languages in order to emphasize the conventional nature of the comma. The main part of the work presents the use of a comma in Spanish in five syntactic contexts. The article ends with conclusions that reveal the obligatory, distinctive and optional nature of the comma in the Spanish orthography.
The UN Convention on the Law of the sea (10 December 1982) contains provisions that create the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. In the twentieth century the conviction has grown in the international community that conflicts should not only be solved by diplomacy, but also by arbitration and international adjudication, which would both issue judgments and offer expert opinion. The majority of EU states chose the International tribunal for the Law of the sea as the first international organ foreseen in Article 287 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Up to now, the Tribunal has considered 15 cases, 12 of which were connected with fisheries. The Tribunal has demonstrated that its procedures are speedy, transparent, and effective. The author of the article mentions all cases pending before the Tribunal in Hamburg from 1997 to 2008. All court costs are covered from the Tribunal's budget. The UN General Assembly in its annual resolutions referring to assessment of the Tribunal’s work underlines “the important role and the authority of the Tribunal in interpreting and implementing the Convention. ” As legal matters now stand, the International Tribunal for the law of the sea can consider any case brought by any state, including, therefore, piracy. It can do this not only on the basis of the UN Convention of 10 December 1982, but also on that o f all other international treaties that give it relevant jurisdiction.
The aim of the article is to present the issue of risk and related management methods, with a particular emphasis on the conditions of investment in energy infrastructure. The work consists of two main parts; the first one is the theoretical analysis of the issue, while the second discusses the application of analysis methods on the example of the investment in an agricultural biogas plant. The article presents the definitions related to the investment risk and its management, with a particular emphasis on the distinction between the risk and uncertainty. In addition, the main risk groups of the energy sector were subjected to an analysis. Then, the basic systematics and the division into particular risk groups were presented and the impact of the diversification of investments in the portfolio on the general level of risk was determined. The sources of uncertainty were discussed with particular attention to the categories of energy investments. The next part of the article presents risk mitigation methods that are part of the integrated risk management process and describes the basic methods supporting the quantification of the risk level and its effects – including the Monte Carlo (MC), Value at risk (VaR), and other methods. Finally, the paper presents the possible application of the methods presented in the theoretical part. The investment in agricultural biogas plant, due to the predictable operation accompanied by an extremely complicated and long-term investment process, was the subject of the analysis. An example of “large drawing analysis” was presented, followed by a Monte Carlo simulation and a VaR value determination. The presented study allows for determining the risk in the case of deviation of financial flows from the assumed values in particular periods and helps in determining the effects of such deviations. The conducted analysis indicates a low investment risk and suggests the ease of similar calculations for other investments.
A kinetic model to describe lovastatin biosynthesis by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a batch culture with the simultaneous use of lactose and glycerol as carbon sources was developed. In order to do this the kinetics of the process was first studied. Then, the model consisting of five ordinary differential equations to balance lactose, glycerol, organic nitrogen, lovastatin and biomass was proposed. A set of batch experiments with a varying lactose to glycerol ratio was used to finally establish the form of this model and find its parameters. The parameters were either directly determined from the experimental data (maximum biomass specific growth rate, yield coefficients) or identified with the use of the optimisation software. In the next step the model was verified with the use of the independent sets of data obtained from the bioreactor cultivations. In the end the parameters of the model were thoroughly discussed with regard to their biological sense. The fit of the model to the experimental data proved to be satisfactory and gave a new insight to develop various strategies of cultivation of A. terreus with the use of two substrates.
Biosynthesis of lovastatin (a polyketide metabolite of Aspergillus terreus) in bioreactors of different working volume was studied to indicate how the change of scale of the process influences the formation of this metabolite. The experiments conducted in shake flasks of 150 ml working volume allowed to obtain lovastatin titres at the level of 87.5 mg LOV l-1, when two carbon sources, namely lactose and glycerol were used. The application of the same components in a large stirred-tank bioreactor of 5.3-litre working volume caused a decrease of lovastatin production by 87% compared to the shake flask culture. The deficiency of nitrogen in this bioreactor did not favour the formation of lovastatin, in contrast to the small bioreactor of 1.95-litre working volume, in which lovastatin titres comparable to those in the shake flasks could be achieved, when organic nitrogen concentration was two-fold decreased. When the control of pH and/or pO2 was used simultaneously, an increase in lovastatin production was observed in the bioreactors. However, these results were still slightly lower than lovastatin titres obtained in the shake flasks.