Due to the fact that the landfill deposition of municipal waste with the higher heating value (HHV) than 6 MJ/kg in Poland is prohibited, the application of waste derived fuels for energy production seems to be good option. There is a new combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plant in Zabrze, where varied solid fuels can be combusted. The formation of ashes originating from the combustion of alternative fuels causes a need to find ways for their practical application and demands the knowledge about their properties. Therefore, the present work is devoted to studying the co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and coal, its impact on fly ash quality and the potential application of ashes to synthesis zeolites. The major objectives of this paper is to present the detail characteristics of ash generated during this process by using the advanced instrumental techniques (XRF, XRD, SEM, B ET, TGA). The co-combustion were carried out at 0.1 MWth fluidized bed combustor. The amount of SRF in fuel mixture was 1, 5, 10 and 20%, respectively. The focus is on the comparison the ashes depending on the fuel mixture composition. Generally, the ashes characterise high amounts of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. It is well observed, that the chemical composition of ashes from co-combustion of blends reflects the amount of SRF addition. Considering the chemical composition of studied ashes, they can be utilize as a zeolites A. The main conclusions is that SRF can be successfully combusted with coal in CFB technology and the fly ashes obtained from coal + SRF fuel mixtures can be used to synthesis zeolites.
This paper is devoted to application of adsorption process for cooling power generation in a cooling devices. Construction and working principle of a water-silica gel adsorption chiller has been presented and the basic refrigeration cycle has been discussed. The article outlines behavior of a single-stage adsorption system influenced by changes in cycle time. The effect of cycle time and inlet chilled water temperatures on the main system performance parameters has been analysed
According to a fuel flexibility, fluidized bed boilers are considered as appropriate for biomass combustion as cofiring. But the burning of fuels such as forest and agricultural biomass raises a number of operational problems. Most important of these problems are bed agglomeration and deposition. Deposition appears when biomass contains significant amounts of alkali elements, such as sodium and potassium. The purpose of the work is to select a fuel additive to overcome these operational problems. Investigations were conducted in two stages at a pilot scale 0.1 MWth laboratory circulating fluidized bed reactor. As the fuel, the mixture of biomass contained forest residues, sunflower husks, straw and wood pellets from mixed woods was selected. In the first stage biomass was burnt without any additives, while in the second one the fuel was enriched with some additive. The additive (liquid mixture of chemicals) was added to the fuel in amounts of 1 dm3 per 5-10 Mg of fuel. The following operational parameters were examined: temperature profiles along the height of the circulating fluidised bed column, pressure profiles, emissions. After the tests, the laboratory reactor was inspected inside. Its results enables expression of the following conclusions: there was no agglomeration during fuel additive testing, and the deposition was reduced as well. Moreover, the parts (heating surfaces, separator) of the laboratory reactor were coated with a protective layer. The layer covered microcracks and protected the parts from deposition for a long period after the operation.
The paper is focused on the idea of a combustion modelling of a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler (CFB) during coal and biomass co-combustion. Numerical computation results for three solid biomass fuels co-combustion with lignite are presented in the paper. The results of the calculation showed that in previously established kinetics equations for coal combustion, some reactions had to be modified as the combustion conditions changed with the fuel blend composition. Obtained CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx emissions are located in borders of ± 20% in the relationship to the experimental data. Experimental data was obtained for forest biomass, sunflower husk, willow and lignite cocombustion tests carried out on the atmospheric 261 MWe COMPACT CFB boiler operated in PGE Turow Power Station in Poland. The energy fraction of biomass in fuel blend was: 7%wt, 10%wt and 15%wt. The measured emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx (i.e. NO + NO2) were also shown in the paper. For all types of biomass added to the fuel blends the emission of the gaseous pollutants was lower than that for coal combustion.
The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR) were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa) in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.
The rigid finite element method (RFEM) has been used mainly for modelling systems with beam-like links. This paper deals with modelling of a single set of electrodes consisting of an upper beam with electrodes, which are shells with complicated shapes, and an anvil beam. Discretisation of the whole system, both the beams and the electrodes, is carried out by means of the rigid finite element method. The results of calculations concerned with free vibrations of the plates are compared with those obtained from a commercial package of the finite element method (FEM), while forced vibrations of the set of electrodes are compared with those obtained by means of the hybrid finite element method (HFEM) and experimental measurements obtained on a special test stand.
This work discusses the heat transfer aspects of the neonate’s brain cooling process carried out by the the device to treat hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This kind of hypothermic therapy is undertaken in case of improper blood circulation during delivery which causes insufficient transport of oxygen to the brain and insufficient cooling of the brain by circulating blood. The experimental setup discussed in this manuscript consists of a special water flow meter and two temperature sensors allowing to measure inlet and outlet water temperatures. Collected results of the measurements allowed to determine time histories of the heat transfer rate transferred from brain to the cooling water for three patients. These results are then analysed and compared among themselves.
This paper presents a study on nitrogen conversion in oxy-fuel coal combustion in a pilot scale CFB 0.1 MWth facility. The paper is focused on fuel-N behaviour in the combustion chamber when the combustion process is accomplished under oxy-fuel CFB conditions. The analysis is based on infurnace sampling of flue gas and calculations of the conversion ratios of fuel-nitrogen (fuel-N) to NO, NO2, N2O, NH3 and HCN. For the tests, O2/CO2 mixtures with the oxygen content of 21 vol.% (primary gas) and with the oxygen content varied from 21 to 35 vol.% (secondary gas), were used as the fluidising gas. Measurements were carried out in 4 control points located along the combustion chamber: 0.43 m, 1.45 m, 2.50 m and 4.88 m. Results presented below indicate that an increased oxygen concentration in the higher part of the combustion chamber has strong influence on the behaviour of fuel based nitrogen compounds.
The paper presents the results of the mechanical, electrical, CCSEM and XRD measurements of hard coal, conducted in simulated conditions of sintering in atmospheres of O2/CO2,. The changes of the coal ash resistivity are correlated with the content of the oxides and with the sintering temperature determined by the mechanical test and Leitz method. The SEM-EDS analysis was conducted for deposits on the probe. The changes of the measured ash samples, observed during sintering process in O2/CO2 atmosphere, were discussed in the ash microstructure point of view.