A geodesic survey of an existing route requires one to determine the approximation curve by means of optimization using the total least squares method (TLSM). The objective function of the LSM was found to be a square of the Mahalanobis distance in the adjustment field ν . In approximation tasks, the Mahalanobis distance is the distance from a survey point to the desired curve. In the case of linear regression, this distance is codirectional with a coordinate axis; in orthogonal regression, it is codirectional with the normal line to the curve. Accepting the Mahalanobis distance from the survey point as a quasi-observation allows us to conduct adjustment using a numerically exact parametric procedure. Analysis of the potential application of splines under the NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) industrial standard with respect to route approximation has identified two issues: a lack of the value of the localizing parameter for a given survey point and the use of vector parameters that define the shape of the curve. The value of the localizing parameter was determined by projecting the survey point onto the curve. This projection, together with the aforementioned Mahalanobis distance, splits the position vector of the curve into two orthogonal constituents within the local coordinate system of the curve. A similar system corresponds to points that form the control polygonal chain and allows us to find their position with the help of a scalar variable that determines the shape of the curve by moving a knot toward the normal line.
In this article I deal with two social encyclical letters – Rerum novarum (1891) and Quadragesimo anno (1931). Also I undertake to discuss the views of Archbishop Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler, who can be regarded as the most important forerunner of the ideas proclaimed later by Pope Leo XIII.
The article presents selected aspects of the life of Cecylia Działyńska against the background of her times, with a focus on the historical and cultural context as well as the specific local conditions, which had a considerable impact on her beliefs and attitude. The analysed source made it possible to reconstruct Cecylia’s convictions concerning her understanding of the nation, patriotism, attitude to the emancipation of women, social roles, faith and the Catholic church, which basically did not differ from the model convictions and behaviours in the public domain which were mandatory in the circles of women from the more enlightened spheres in the Prussian Partition. It was not so with the fulfilment of Cecylia’s ideals. Her deep religiousness, inclination to mysticism, unwillingness to marry, as well as an incurable, chronic disease, all left their mark on her life, preventing Cecylia from adopting the traditional role of a wife and a mother preserving the Polish customs and traditions, and maintaining faithfulness to the national and Catholic values in a family. Despite serious differences between the developing women’s movement in the Prussian Partition, and its equivalent in the Austrian and Russian Partitions, the views and the activity of women in the province of Posen, including Cecylia Działyńska (their rich charitable and educational activity as well as the significant development of female congregations in the second half of the 19th century), should be considered a more traditional, conservative model of the process of the emancipation of women on the Polish soil.
Cooling of the hot gas path components plays a key role in modern gas turbines. It allows, due to efficiency reasons, to operate the machines with temperature exceeding components' melting point. The cooling system however brings about some disadvantages as well. If so, we need to enforce the positive effects of cooling and diminish the drawbacks, which influence the reliability of components and the whole machine. To solve such a task we have to perform an optimization which makes it possible to reach the desired goal. The task is approached in the 3D configuration. The search process is performed by means of the evolutionary approach with floatingpoint representation of design variables. Each cooling structure candidate is evaluated on the basis of thermo-mechanical FEM computations done with Ansys via automatically generated script file. These computations are parallelized. The results are compared with the reference case which is the C3X airfoil and they show a potential stored in the cooling system. Appropriate passage distribution makes it possible to improve the operation condition for highly loaded components. Application of evolutionary approach, although most suitable for such problems, is time consuming, so more advanced approach (Conjugate Heat Transfer) requires huge computational power. The analysis is based on original procedure which involves optimization of size and location of internal cooling passages of cylindrical shape within the airfoil. All the channels can freely move within the airfoil cross section and also their number can change. Such a procedure is original.
The paper presents the results of laboratory tests into the effects of moisture and the content of two types of bentonite on dielectric properties of moulding sand. The use of electromagnetic waves in foundry industry is becoming more and more popular, which provides to some extent alternatives to conventional drying methods. Experimental studies published so far have shown the validity of using microwaves for drying classic moulding sands with bentonite. However, these studies lack data on the effect of moisture or bentonite content in moulding sand on the real component ε' or imaginary component ε'' of the relative complex electrical permittivity. The presented results may become in the future the basis for the evaluation of the composition of moulding sands, taking into account the phenomena occurring under the influence of electromagnetic field, which directly translates into the quality of the castings made and may constitute an attempt to develop a mathematical model of electric properties of moulding sands.
This article presents the next period in the history of Jadwiga Zamoyska’s School of House Keeping (Szkoła Domowej Pracy Kobiet Jadwigi Zamoyskiej). It was established in 1882 in Kórnik, but as a consequence of oppressive Prussian policy it was moved to Galicia, to Kuźnice near Zakopane, to where the Zamoyski family also moved their residence. When World War I broke out, Jadwiga Zamoyska and her children – Władysław and Mary – stayed in Paris. They could not return to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy because they were French citizens. Zamoyska could supervise the school and give advice in various matters only by mail. It was also difficult to financially support the school, because most of her landed properties were located in Prussian Poland. Besides these hardships, the school could still function, though the number of teachers and schoolgirls diminished. Under the circumstances, the school’s personnel offered a shelter to war refugees and orphans. As the main aim of this school one can point to the upbringing of the schoolgirls in the Catholic faith and the shaping of their personality in such a spirit. The school programme was focused on developing practical skills (cooking, sewing, gardening, farming, etc.) as well as general knowledge in mathematics, humanities and the natural sciences (with special reference to the history of Poland, aesthetic needs were fulfilled by classes in singing and drawing as well as physical education).
The purpose of the “Zakłady Kórnickie” Foundation was to assure fi nancial basis for the institutions founded by Jadwiga and Władysław Zamojski. In the law passed in 1925 the first place among the aims of the Foundation was held by “maintenance and development of The Housework School for Women”. The Foundation, however, was not performing this legal obligation properly. Preliminary school budgets were set at a level that was too low and the funds were paid too late and not to the full amount. This disorganized life at the School. There was not enough money to pay employees’ salaries on time, income tax, health insurance etc. were likewise was not paid. It was necessary to request for loans, buy food and coal on credit, etc. Drastic savings were made at the cost of the School during the great economic crisis. In 1931 two of the three courses run by the School were closed. The situation began to improve in the School year 1934/35. In 1937, besides the traditional course, a two-years’ high school of economics was inaugurated. In 1938 complete reconstruction of the School buildings was started but the outbreak of the war prevented its completion.