The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the decision-making problem faced by a future house owner - selection of the optimal solution of building thermal insulation in relation to the selected criteria, both related to costs and future benefits. The problem of selecting the best solutions in the construction sector is widely discussed in the science literature. In this paper, the authors decided to solve the raised problem by using the Entropy method.
This article presents the research results on impact of the method of polycrystalline graphene layers separation from the growth substrate on the obtained carbon material quality. The studies were carried out on graphene sheets obtained by metallurgical method on a liquid metal substrate (HSMG® graphene). The graphene was separated using chemical etching method or the electrochemical delamination method, by separating by means of electrolysis. During electrolysis, hydrogen is emitted on a graphene-covered of cathode (metal growth substrate) as a result of the voltage applied. The graphene layer breaks away from metallic substrate by gas accumulation between them. The results from these separation processes were evaluated by means of different tools, such as SEM, TEM and AFM microscopy as well as Raman Spectroscopy. In summary, the majority of analyses indicate that the graphene obtained as a result of hydrogen delamination possesses higher purity, smaller size and number of defects, its surface is smooth and less developed after the transfer process to the target substrate.
The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the ceramic SiC particles. A Watts type galvanic bath modified with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide (LSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THAM) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS). The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. Studies concerned the effect of the applied organic additives on properties of composite coatings such as: microstructure, microhardness, adhesion to the substrate, corrosion resistance and roughness. The structure of the coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Based on the studies of zeta potential it was found that the bath modification had a significant impact on the amount of the ceramic phase embedded in metal matrix. The tests conducted in a model 0.01 M KCl solution were not fully representative of the true behavior of particles in a Watts bath.
The subject of the work is the analysis of thermomechanical bending process of a thin-walled tube made of X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. The deformation is produced at elevated temperature generated with a laser beam in a specially designed experimental setup. The tube bending process consists of local heating of the tube by a moving laser beam and simultaneous kinematic enforcement of deformation with an actuator and a rotating bending arm. During experimental investigations, the resultant force of the actuator and temperature at the laser spot are recorded. In addition to experimental tests, the bending process of the tube was modelled using the finite element method in the ABAQUS program. For this purpose, the tube deformation process was divided into two sequentially coupled numerical simulations. The first one was the heat transfer analysis for a laser beam moving longitudinally over the tube surface. The second simulation described the process of mechanical bending with the time-varying temperature field obtained in the first simulation. The force and temperature recorded during experiments were used to verify the proposed numerical model. The final stress state and the deformation of the tube after the bending process were analyzed using the numerical solution. The results indicate that the proposed bending method can be successfully used in forming of the thin-walled profiles, in particular, when large bending angles and a small spring-back effect are of interest.
The article presents the results of studies on the efficacy of water desalination (i.e. Elimination of NaCl ions from the solution) using graphene-polyamide composite membranes. The membrane used for filtration consists of a monolayer of polycrystalline graphene on a porous polyamide carrier support (nylon 66). The degree of desalination for an aqueous NaCl solution percolated through the membrane was 18%. In the future this type of membrane may replace the currently used reverse osmosis membranes.
The aim of the study was to assess the physiological stiffness of the normal canine jejunal mucosa based on shear wave elastography. The study was carried out on 60 dogs. In all the animals studied, the abdominal ultrasound was carried out using the SuperSonic Imagine Aixplorer system. The site of the jejunal elastography was determined using standard ultrasonography and all the measurements were carried out thrice. The stiffness of the area examined was determined during each measurement. Mean values were calculated based on the results obtained. The normal stiffness of the jejunal mucosa ranged from 1.305 kPa to 9.319 kPa (mean 5.31 ± 2.04 kPa). Based on our findings, we determined the range of normal values of the jejunal mucosal stiffness in healthy dogs. In addition, shear wave elastography was found to be safe and easy to perform. Moreover, it did not require anaesthesia or patient immobilisation for long periods.
During excavation of the cremation cemetery of urnfield culture in Legnica at Spokojna Street (Lower Silesia, Poland), dated to 1100-700 BC, the largest - so far in Poland – a collection of casting moulds from the Bronze Age was discovered: three moulds for axes casting made out of stone and five moulds for casting sickles, razors, spearhead and chisels, made out of clay. This archaeological find constituted fittings of foundrymen’s graves. In order to perform the complete analysis of moulds in respect of their application in the Bronze Age casting technology analytical methods, as well as, computer aided methods of technological processes were used. Macroscopic investigations were performed and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method was used to analyse the chemical composition and metal elements content in mould cavities. Moulds were subjected to three-dimensional scanning and due to the reverse engineering the geometry of castings produced in these moulds were obtained. The gathered data was used to perform design and research works by means of the MAGMA5 software. Various variants of the pouring process and alloys solidification in these archaeological moulds were simulated. The obtained results were utilised in the interpretation of the Bronze Age casting production in stone and clay moulds, with regard to their quality and possibility of casting defects occurrence being the result of these moulds construction. The reverse engineering, modelling and computer simulation allowed the analysis of moulds and castings. Investigations of casting moulds together with their digitalisation and reconstruction of casting technology, confirm the high advancement degree of production processes in the Bronze Age.