At the end of 2018, when the Hučivá Cave (Hučivá diera, Rausch Keller) was explored in Tatranská Lomnica, profile deposits in rear areas of the cave were found disturbed by an amateur excavation. One stone artefact was first found in back-dirt clay-layer material at the excavation pit, later joined by four more specimens from the cleaned pit profile. The Typological analysis of the artefacts shows, that their closest parallels are found in inventories of the Magdalenian culture. Hučivá is the only cave in the whole Tatras with documented prehistoric settlement and the only Slovak cave with evidence of the Magdalenian culture. The discovery provides new information concerning subsistence strategies of late Pleistocene hunters in High Tatra Mountain landscapes. In light of this discovery, the possibility of seasonal movements along the northern slopes of this mountains range to the east and then south, through the mountain passes to the upper Spiš region should now be considered.
This article presents the results of the study of changes in mineral and chemical composition of artificial aggregates consisting of coal shale (a hard coal mining waste) and fluidized ashes. Such an aggregate was used for road construction. After completion of the construction works but before making the road available for public use, significant deformation of the surface in the form of irregular buckling of the asphalt layer occurred. It was excluded that this resulted from mining damage, design errors or performance mistakes, among others. A study of the materials that had been incorporated in the construction layers was undertaken in order to find the component and the mechanism responsible for the buckling of the road surface. A comparison of the mineral and chemical composition of aggregate samples collected from the embankment where the road buckled with the reference sample and samples from places without deformations showed that the bumps in the road embankment consisted of minerals that were not initially present in the aggregate. Wastes produced as a result of high temperatures (slag and power plants ashes, metallurgical wastes) are not as stable in terms of chemical and phase composition in the hypergenic environment. As a result of the processes occurring in the road embankment, anhydrite, which is the primary component of fluidized ashes, was transformed into gypsum and ettringite. As a result of contact with water CaO (present in fluidized ashes) easily changed into calcium hydroxide. As the crystallization of these minerals is expansive, it resulted in the filling of pores and, in extreme cases, in a substantial increase in the volume of the aggregate and, consequently, in the deformation of the road surface.
The main subject of research in this paper is glauconite with its useful parameters, which is the object of exploitation in the “Górka Lubartowska-Niedźwiada” deposit. The main glauconitic horizon (lower Eocene) is built by loamy fine-grained and medium greenish sands with marine fauna and fragments of amber (ca. 7 m thick). Thin lamins and pockets of silts containing phosphorites and also glauconitic sands with underlaying very thin quartz-glauconitic sands are found at the bottom of this layer. The glauconite deposit in “Górka Lubartowska-Niedźwiada” is an amount of ca. 30% by volume of the main glauconitic horizon. Glauconite of the 1M polytype (XRD) shows large granulometric and morphological differentiation (SEM-EDS). It frequently contains aggregations of euhedral or framboidal pyrite grains (RS), which is indicative of the euxinic nature of the formation environment of the rocks under study. The individual glauconite grains show distinct chemical variability, manifested in a lower share of Al2O3 and an increased content of MgO and CaO (EPMA, XRF). At the same time, a large share of K2O (above 8% by weight) allows it to be included in highly matured glauconite, thus it can be considered as a potential raw material for the production of mineral fertilizers. The association of glauconite with phosphates (SEM-EDS) and anatase inclusions in the grains of glauconite (RS) indirectly point to the contribution of the decomposing organic matter to the formation of grains of this mineral. The xylite fragments preserved in the sediment show a low degree of coalification, which is typical of soft lignite. This also shows that the transformation process was taking place under a relatively small overburden.