The aim of this paper was to test currently available on the market products for sealing anodic oxide coatings as well as to test the use of other alternative substances improving the sealing process. The ability to seal in 10 different solutions and the quality of the seal has been tested. The influence of the applied preparations on corrosion resistance and resistance to strongly alkaline environment was also investigated. Based on the results obtained, satisfactory results were archived for the sample sealed in a IMN-OML (Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals in Gliwice, Light Metals Division) solution sealant and in solution of nickel acetate in a medium-temperature process. Sealing by means of nickel acetate solutions is economically justified, and its use allows the process temperature to be lowered. When it comes to resistance to alkalis, samples sealed in IMN-OML sealant are the best. Commercial solutions have also achieved positive results in all tests.
The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the ceramic SiC particles. A Watts type galvanic bath modified with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide (LSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THAM) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS). The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. Studies concerned the effect of the applied organic additives on properties of composite coatings such as: microstructure, microhardness, adhesion to the substrate, corrosion resistance and roughness. The structure of the coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Based on the studies of zeta potential it was found that the bath modification had a significant impact on the amount of the ceramic phase embedded in metal matrix. The tests conducted in a model 0.01 M KCl solution were not fully representative of the true behavior of particles in a Watts bath.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.
The aim of this article is to identify the role, that special residential law issued by the municipal executive authorities plays in the metropolises development. The article presents key urban and legal barriers related to the functioning of the spacial management system. The article ends with recommendations for further actions related to repair local spatial policy.
Praca zawiera analizy i oceny skutków wybranych regulacji polskiego prawa dotyczących gospodarki przestrzennej, zwłaszcza planowania przestrzennego. Różni się od poprzednich raportów położeniem większego nacisku na bariery blokujące naprawę wadliwego systemu publicznego zarządzania przestrzenią. Praca nie jest próbą oceny prawa pod względem jego poprawności jurydycznej i legislacyjnej.
The subject of the work is the analysis of thermomechanical bending process of a thin-walled tube made of X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. The deformation is produced at elevated temperature generated with a laser beam in a specially designed experimental setup. The tube bending process consists of local heating of the tube by a moving laser beam and simultaneous kinematic enforcement of deformation with an actuator and a rotating bending arm. During experimental investigations, the resultant force of the actuator and temperature at the laser spot are recorded. In addition to experimental tests, the bending process of the tube was modelled using the finite element method in the ABAQUS program. For this purpose, the tube deformation process was divided into two sequentially coupled numerical simulations. The first one was the heat transfer analysis for a laser beam moving longitudinally over the tube surface. The second simulation described the process of mechanical bending with the time-varying temperature field obtained in the first simulation. The force and temperature recorded during experiments were used to verify the proposed numerical model. The final stress state and the deformation of the tube after the bending process were analyzed using the numerical solution. The results indicate that the proposed bending method can be successfully used in forming of the thin-walled profiles, in particular, when large bending angles and a small spring-back effect are of interest.
The aim of the study was to assess the physiological stiffness of the normal canine jejunal mucosa based on shear wave elastography. The study was carried out on 60 dogs. In all the animals studied, the abdominal ultrasound was carried out using the SuperSonic Imagine Aixplorer system. The site of the jejunal elastography was determined using standard ultrasonography and all the measurements were carried out thrice. The stiffness of the area examined was determined during each measurement. Mean values were calculated based on the results obtained. The normal stiffness of the jejunal mucosa ranged from 1.305 kPa to 9.319 kPa (mean 5.31 ± 2.04 kPa). Based on our findings, we determined the range of normal values of the jejunal mucosal stiffness in healthy dogs. In addition, shear wave elastography was found to be safe and easy to perform. Moreover, it did not require anaesthesia or patient immobilisation for long periods.