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Number of results: 9
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different zinc and iron concentrations in culture medium on growth and development of maize and wheat seedlings in terms of their inoculation with bacteria of Azospirillum genus. Maize and wheat in vitro cultures were inoculated, respectively, by strains of Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense strains. The experimental factor was the supplementation of the culture medium with zinc (25, 200 and 600 mg·kg-1 of the medium) and iron (25, 200 and 600 mg·kg-1 of the medium). Counts of bacteria from the Azospirillum genus were analysed and plant seedling growth and development as well as the content of chlorophyll in plant leaf blades were monitored. Zinc turned out to reduce strongly numbers of bacteria of the Azospirillum genus. Azospirillum brasilense turned out to be particularly sensitive to elevated levels of this chemical element in the environment. The negative influence of increased quantities of zinc on cereal seedlings became apparent only after the application of the highest concentrations of this metal in the medium (600 mg·kg-1), while quantities which did not exceed 200 mg·kg-1 exerted a stimulation effect on the mass of maize and wheat seedlings. Iron added to the culture medium in quantities which did not exceed 200 mg·kg-1 did not reduce numbers of bacteria of the Azospirillum genus; on the contrary, they stimulated their growth. However, at higher concentrations, this metal turned out to exert a strong negative impact on the chlorophyll content in leaf blades as well as on the mass of maize and wheat seedlings. The inoculation with bacteria of the Azospirillum genus exerted a positive influence on the mass increase of maize and wheat seedlings and increased chlorophyll concentrations in leaf blades. At the same time, it contributed significantly to limiting or even levelling out the toxic impact of zinc and iron during the initial phases of plant growth and development.
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Abstract

The aim of the performed experiments was to analyse relationships occurring between endophytic bacteria from the Herbaspirillum genus and Sinorhizobium meliloti Bp nodule bacteria and to examine the condition of plants subjected to coinoculation with the above-mentioned strains in in vitro conditions. In experiments examining the impact of Herbaspirillum frisingense on Sinorhizobium meliloti BP, the stimulation of growth of inoculated bacteria from the Sinorhizobium genus was recorded in all three combinations (48-hour culturing, sediment and supernatant). On the other hand, the examination of interactions between the Sinorhizobium meliloti strain and Herbaspirillum frisingense strain revealed that in the case of culture and supernatant, an antagonistic action was recorded. Besides, it was found that such coinoculation exerted a beneficial influence on the process of seed lucerne symbiosis and yielding as confirmed by increased numbers of root nodules, higher nitrogenase activity and greater plant mass.
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Abstract

The aim of the presented investigations was to examine changes in the intensity of dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities as well as of the dynamics of selected groups of microorganisms in the soil under the cultivation of winter triticale following the application of the following seed dressings: (a.s.) flutriafol 2.5% + fludioxonil 2.5% in two doses and (a.s.) carboxin and tiuram. The experiment had a field character. The number of microorganisms (total bacteria, fungi, oligotrophic, copiotrophic and Azotobacter) was determined by the plate method on adequate agar substrates. Activity levels of the selected enzymes were defined using the spectrometrical method. The obtained results indicate a change in the dehydrogenase and phoshatase activity in soil depending on the seed dressing applied in the experiment as well as at the date of investigations. The number of microorganisms in the soil underwent fluctuations depending on the developmental stage of triticale and the applied fungicide. The performed experiment demonstrated that counts of microorganisms in the soil underwent fluctuations depending on the developmental stage of triticale and the applied fungicide.
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Abstract

The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum) in vegetable (onion and tomato) waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure). Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.
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Abstract

In view of the world’s recent changes in the mineral market, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure the sustainable and secure supply of raw materials, both within the European Union and in other high-developed countries. In response to this global challenge, as part of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Program for Research & Innovation, the 36-month INTRAW project was launched in February 2015 to foster international cooperation on raw materials. The EU-funded INTRAW project was set up to map and develop new cooperation opportunities related to raw materials between the EU and other technologically advanced countries, such as: Australia, Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States. The first stage of the project was a review of conditions for the stable supply of raw materials from primary and secondary sources in selected countries: the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and Japan. The results of the work are two groups of comprehensive reports. The first of these is a broad contextual analysis of geological, environmental, political, technical -economic and social factors conducive to the effective management of mineral resources. The second group is operational reports, carried out in three thematic blocks: industry and trade, research and innovation, education. The analysis clearly shows that the basis for effective action in this area is a stable political, economic and institutional environment, which is friendly to mining and new entities wishing to invest in modern technologies, the exploration and exploitation of deposits. Investors are encouraged by tax regulations, sometimes also by direct government financial support and efficient licensing procedures. The well-defined protection of property rights, also for deposits is equally important. Selected aspects of a wide analysis of determinants of competitiveness for these countries were presented in the article below.
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Abstract

The aim of the research was to assess the microbiological (number of heterotrophic bacteria, actinobacteria and moulds) and biochemical (urease and acid phosphatase activity) state of peat with the admixture of composts produced from sewage sludge. An additional aim of the research was to demonstrate the influence of those substrates on the morphological traits of scarlet sage (height, number and length of shoots, number of buds and inflorescences, greenness index (SPAD)). Composts produced from sewage sludge, wheat, maize and lupine straw were mixed with peat, where their percentage varied from 25% to 75%. The substrate which included the composts applied in the experiment had a higher number of heterotrophic bacteria and a higher acid phosphatase activity level than the control substrate (peat). The multiplication of moulds and actinobacteria was more intensive than in the peat only in the combinations with K3 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+ lupine straw 30%) and K4 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+fresh maize straw 30%) composts, whereas the highest urease activity level was observed in the soils produced from K1 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+white straw 30%) compost. The most optimal development of plants was observed in the substrate with compost produced from wheat straw. Composts produced from municipal sewage sludge were found to be suitable for growing scarlet sage. However, their effect depends on the percentage of high peat in the substrate.
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Abstract

The functioning of European economies and societies requires a stable and sustainable supply of mineral resources. For 10 years now EU has been developing raw materials initiative to secure European minerals supply. In many cases, areas with known or hypothetic mineral resources, are not sufficiently valued by society and authorities, remain unprotected and face competing land uses with the risk of becoming sterilized. MINATURA 2020 project was born out of a need to develop a harmonised framework which allow a common way of identifying “mineral deposits of public importance” (MDoPI) and their safeguarding via land use planning. The project has left a useful set of guidelines and proposals how to advance on the creation of a European network of MDoPIs to avoid sterilization of “deposits worth safeguarding”. In Poland, the need for legal protection of mineral deposits has been discussed intensively in recent years. Various proposals aimed at better system of mineral deposits safeguarding, especially those which should be recognized as of public importance, have been proposed. However, until now only a few coal deposits were recognized as strategic. Currently, the Polish National Mineral Policy is under preparation. Its overriding objective is to provide access to the necessary minerals, also in the longterm perspective. It assumes among others activities aimed at protection of mineral deposits regarding land use planning system. Paper presents scope and general results of MINATURA2020 project, with details on MINATURA2020 methodology implementation in Poland, Project of the Polish National Mineral Policy with its objectives and key pillars, position of MDoPIs in this Project, and – finally – expected future steps related to MDoPI safeguarding in EU and in Poland.
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