The fundamental importance of cartographic signs in traditional maps is unquestionable, although in the case of multimedia maps their key function is not so obvious. Our aim was to search the problem of cartographic signs as a core of multimedia maps prepared by non-cartographer in on-line Map Services. First, pre-established rules for multimedia map designers were prepared emphasizing the key role of the cartographic signs and habits of Web-users. The comparison of projects completed by a group of designers led us to the general conclusion that a cartographic sign should determine the design of a multimedia map in on-line Map Services. Despite the selection of five different map topics, one may list the general characteristics of the maps with a cartographic sign in the core.
This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.
Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being used in close range photogrammetry. Real-time observation of the Earth’s surface and the photogrammetric images obtained are used as material for surveying and environmental inventory. The following study was conducted on a small area (approximately 1 ha). In such cases, the classical method of topographic mapping is not accurate enough. The geodetic method of topographic surveying, on the other hand, is an overly precise measurement technique for the purpose of inventorying the natural environment components. The author of the following study has proposed using the unmanned aerial vehicle technology and tying in the obtained images to the control point network established with the aid of GNSS technology. Georeferencing the acquired images and using them to create a photogrammetric model of the studied area enabled the researcher to perform calculations, which yielded a total root mean square error below 9 cm. The performed comparison of the real lengths of the vectors connecting the control points and their lengths calculated on the basis of the photogrammetric model made it possible to fully confirm the RMSE calculated and prove the usefulness of the UAV technology in observing terrain components for the purpose of environmental inventory. Such environmental components include, among others, elements of road infrastructure, green areas, but also changes in the location of moving pedestrians and vehicles, as well as other changes in the natural environment that are not registered on classical base maps or topographic maps.
In the following paper, geovisualisation will be applied to one spatial phenomenon and understood as a process of creating complementary visualisations: static two-dimensional, surface three-dimensional, and interactive. The central challenge that the researchers faced was to find a method of presenting the phenomenon in a multi- faceted way. The main objective of the four-stage study was to show the capacity of the contemporary software for presenting geographical space from various perspectives while maintaining the standards of cartographic presentation and making sure that the form remains attractive for the user. The correctness, effectiveness, and usefulness of the proposed approach was analysed on the basis of a geovisualisation of natural aggregate extraction in the Gniezno district in the years 2005–2015. For each of the three visualisations, the researchers planned a different range of information, different forms of graphic and cartographic presentation, different use and function, but as far as possible the same accessible databases and the same free technologies. On the basis of the final publication, the researchers pointed out the advantages of the proposed work flow and the correctness of the detailed flowchart.
This study presents an attempt to design geographical visualisation tools that allow to tackle the immensity of spatial data provided by Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both in terms of temporal and spatial aspects. In accordance with the assumptions made at the conceptual stage, the final action was the implementation of the window entitled ‘Geovisualisation of the Panoramio.com Activities in District of Poznań 2011’ into the web browser. The concept has been based on a division of the geovisualisation window into three panels, of which the most important - in order to capture spatial variability - have statistical maps at the general level (dot map and choropleth map), while at the detailed level - a dot map on a topographic reference map or tourist map. For two ranges, temporal variability is presented by graphs, while a review of attributes of individual activities of the social website in question is set forward in the table panel. The element that visually interlinks all of the panels is the emphasised individual activity.
The aim of this study is to present an exemplary cartographic visualization of fi re hydrants data consisting of a set of thematic maps containing various information related to the location of hydrants, buildings and driveways in geographic space, and relationships existing between them. Identification of these relationships requires spatial analysis, and illustrating them requires the use of appropriate cartographic presentation methods. The study was conducted on a part of the city of Poznan using data on hydrants’ location and type collected and provided by the Fire Department. Geometric data, obtained using geoprocessing algorithms, were assigned appropriate symbols, which lets differentiate them qualitatively and quantitatively. An emphasis is placed on the use of adequate visual variables and on the cartographic communication efficiency. The result of the study is a cartographic visualization in the form of series of thematic maps arranged in a logical sequence, and providing information about the secured area. The thematic layers presenting the same area were arranged in different arrangements with maintenance of the reference layers, ensuring the ease of correlation. Such a cartographic visualization provides knowledge about the spatial distribution and diversity of objects and the relationships between them. It may be an important source of knowledge both at the identification stage and at the operational stage when conducting a fire fighting action.