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Abstract

The paper presents kinematic characteristics of the double 4-link coupler system, used in actual powertrain of low-floor trams (NGT6-Kr). The spatial kinematic model of the couplings was formulated assuming ideal joints and rigid members. The constraints equations of the mechanism were solved iteratively and differentiated to obtain the Jacobian matrix. The mobility and singularity analysis of the coupler mechanism was performed on the basis of the Jacobian matrix. Kinematic characteristics of the single and double coupler system were analyzed for gross angular and linear axle displacements (misalignments), taking the advantage of the fully nonlinear model. The coupling system was evaluated based on criteria describing homokinetics, balancing and clearance demands, and angular displacements in the joints. These criteria were determined for different design parameters like: coupler proportions, platform shift and angle, middle shaft length.
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Abstract

The paper presents optimization of 5-rod (5-link) suspension mechanism used in passenger cars for independent guiding of the wheels. Selected stiffness coefficients defined for five elastomeric bushings installed in joints of the suspension rods are considered as design variables. Two models with lumped parameters (i.e. elastokinematic and dynamic) of wheel-suspension-car body system are formulated to describe relationships between the design variables and the performance indexes including car active safety and ride comfort, respectively. The multi-criteria goal function is minimized using a deterministic algorithm. The suspension with optimized bushings rates fulfils desired elastokinematic criteria together with a defined dynamic criterion, describing the so-called rolling comfort. An event of car passing over short road bump is considered as dynamic conditions. The numerical example deals with an actual middle-class passenger car with 5-rod suspension at the front driven axle. Estimation of the models parameters and their verification were carried out on the basis of indoor and outdoor experiments. The proposed optimization procedure can be used to improve the suspension design or development cycle.
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