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Abstract

Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) supplement in a daily diet on the cognitive behaviour of the rats and the expression of paravalbumin (PV) in populations of hippocampal neurons. It has been postulated that the antioxidants present in bilberry fruit may act as neuroprotective factors playing also a significant role as memory enhancements. Forty Wistar rats with a similar average body weight (460 ± 0.4 g) were divided into four groups (n=10 per group). The control group received standard feed (210 g/week), whereas animals of experimental groups received standard feed supplemented with bilberry (per os) at consumed doses of 2 g (group I), 5 g (group II), and 10 g/kg b.w./ /day (group III). After three months of feeding with bilberry, the modified elevated plus-maze test (mEPM) was performed. After 32 weeks of feeding, brains were collected and PV-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were immunohistochemically visualized. In the modified elevated plus-maze test, transfer latency examined 2 h and 24 h after the acquisition session was significantly shorter (p<0.05) in the group II in comparison with the control group. In CA1 and CA2/CA3 hippocampal fields as well as dentate gyrus of all experimental groups, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in number of PV-ir neurons were found. In relation to the control group, the mean subpopulation of PV-ir neurons found in groups II and III were significantly reduced. The subpopulations of PV-ir neurons found in DG of all experimental groups were significantly reduced in comparison to the control. In conclusion the in the present paper we demonstrated a relationship between the diet rich in a bilberry fruit and process of memory as well as numbers of calcium- binding protein-expressing hippocampal neurons. Our results may be source of basic knowledge for further research aiming at neuroprotective role of the bilberry fruit.
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Abstract

The model concept, as presented in this paper, is an original solution created by the author, and can be used as a proposal to build an innovative mechanism to increase the effectiveness of programming and implementation of the development policy, and improve the quality of functioning of a building research institute. The development management system included in this model is a set of actions targeting at the effective use of human and tangible resources, undertaken in a coordinated manner and leading to the achievement of previously established objectives. The market activity of building research institutes is directly or indirectly involved in construction projects, which translates into market mechanisms, such as innovation and competitiveness. In addition, it indicates the participation of a building research institute in the engineering of construction projects as a key to entrepreneurship and implementations.
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Abstract

Analytical transmission electron microscopy has been applied to characterize the microstructure, phase and chemical composition of the Ag–Al wear track throughout its thickness down to the atomic level. Microscopy findings have been correlated with Ag–Al film tribological properties to understand the effect of the hexagonal solid solution phase on the tribological properties of this film. Ag–25Al (at.%) films have been produced by simultaneous magnetron sputtering of components in Ar atmosphere under 1 mTorr pressure and subjected to pin-on-disc tribological tests. It has been shown that hcp phase with (001) planes aligned parallel to the film surface dominates both in as-deposited and in tribofilm areas of the Ag–Al alloy film. Possible mechanisms of reduced friction in easily oxidized Ag–Al system are discussed and the mechanism based on readily shearing basal planes of the hcp phase is considered as the most probable one.
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