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Abstract

A compact Sierpinski Carpet square fractal multiband antenna operating at 3.9 (WiMAX) /6.6 (Satellite TV) /8.1/10.7/11.8 GHz (X-band) is presented. The proposed Microstrip Patch Antenna (MSPA) consists of a Sierpinski Carpet square fractal radiator in which square slots are etched out and a tapered microstrip feed line. The Sierpinski Carpet square fractal patch modifies the current resonant path thereby making the antenna to operate at five useful bands. Impedance matching at these bands are solely achieved by using Sierpinski square slot and tapered feedline, thus eliminating the need of any external matching circuit. The dimensions of the compact antenna is 32 x 32 x 1,6 mm3 and exhibits S11<-10dB bandwidth of about 4.8% (4.01-3.82 GHz), 2.1% (6.62-6.48 GHz), 2.7% (8.24-8.02 GHz), 2.1% (10.77-10.54 GHz) and 21% (12.1-11.60 GHz) with the gain of 7.57/3.91/3.77/6.74/1.33 dB at the operating frequencies 3.9/6.6/8.1/10.7 and 11.8 GHz, respectively under simulation analysis carried out by using HFSS v.13.0.
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Abstract

The influence of the refractory coating which is a mixture of silica flour and kaolin on the surface roughness of the plate castings produced using evaporative patterns had been considered in this work. The kaolin was used as a binder and ratio method was employed to form basis for the factorial design of experiment which led to nine runs of experiments. Methyl alcohol at 99% concentration was used as the carrier for the transfer of the coating to the surface of the patterns. Pouring temperature was observed as a process parameter alongside the mix ratios of the coating. Attempts were made to characterize the refractory coating by using two methods; differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Attempt was also made to characterize the casting material. Gating system design was done for the plate casting to determine the correct proportions of the gating parameters in order to construct the gating system properly to avoid turbulence during pouring of liquid metal. A digital profilometer was used to take the measurements of the surface roughness. It was observed that the mix ratio 90% silica flour-10% kaolin produced the lowest value of the surface roughness of the plate castings and had the lowest material loss in the DTA test. The pouring temperature of 650o C produced best casting.
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