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Abstract

It was expected that there would be a relationship between plant density and arrangement within soybean plantations and ground beetles due to changes of abiotic habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of different plant arrangements of soybean plants on the abundance and species diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). The studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at the Experimental Research Station, Wrocław, Poland. The occurrence of beetles was examined on soybeans, growing in four different treatments: row spacing of 15 cm or 30 cm, and seeding density of 50 or 90 seeds per m2. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design in four replicates. Ground beetles were collected with 16 pitfall traps, with one trap in the middle part of each plot. The obtained results show that the general number of ground beetles was similar between the treatments. Some minor effects were found in species number, which was higher in the lower row spacing treatment. Only less abundant species were significantly affected. The most abundant species in all years and treatments were Pseudoophonus rufipes, Harpalus affinis, Calathus fuscipes and Pterostichus melanarius. The abundance of the above-listed common ground beetle species did not differ significantly between treatments.
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Abstract

Isozyme, RAPD and AFLP markers were evaluated and compared for their ability to determine genetic similarity in a set of 18 parental lines of winter oilseed rape F<sub>1</sub> hybrids developed using CMS ogura. Five isozyme systems, 64 RAPD starters and 23 EcoRI+3/MseI+3 AFLP primer combinations generated 597 polymorphic markers. These polymorphic fragments were chosen for estimation of genetic similarity. Of the total number of polymorphic products, polymorphic zymograms constituted only 3.0% of the markers, 57 RAPD primers 37.7%, and 23 AFLP primer combinations 59.3%. The size of RAPD polymorphic products ranged from 564 to 2100 bp. On average there were four amplified bands per primer, with 61.0% polymorphism. The AFLP polymorphic fragments ranged from 72 to 1352 bp in size. AFLP assays generated 15 bands per primer pair on average and detected roughly four times more bands than with RAPD analysis. The genetic similarity coefficients based on all marker data range from 0.52 to 0.84. The correlation of genetic similarities based on RAPD and AFLP markers was 0.58. Estimated genetic similarity based on isozyme data was not correlated with genetic similarity derived from the two DNA-based markers. The dendrogram constructed with the three types of markers taken together grouped all the winter oilseed rape parental lines into several similar clusters. The genomic distribution and frequency of the RAPD and AFLP markers can serve well as estimators of genetic similarity between parental lines of F<sub>1</sub> CMS ogura hybrids
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