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Abstract

Autonomic nervous system of the pelvis is still poorly understood. Every year more and more pelvic procedures are carried out on patients suff ering from diff erent pelvic disorders what leads to numerous pelvic dysfunctions. Authors tried to review, starting from historical and clinical background, the most important reports on anatomy of the pelvic autonomic plexuses. We also pay attention to complete lack of knowledge of students of medicine on the autonomic nervous structures in the area studied. We present anatomical description of the pelvic plexuses including their visceral branches and anatomy of surrounding pelvic tissues which still remains unclear. More and more attention is paid to the topography of the plexuses specially because of new pain releasing techniques — neurolysies.
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Abstract

The study was conducted on the Biała Lądecka River which is a mountain river. It is similar to many European mountain rivers in terms of hydromorphology and catchment management. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconcentration factors of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn) in Ranunculus aquatile (L.) Dumort., Fontinalis antipyretica (L. ex Hedw.), and Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) C.Ag. The content of metals in water, sediment, and submerged plants was determined. The metal concentrations in plants can be arranged as follows: Hg < Cd < Cr < Ni < Cu < Pb <Zn. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cr, and Cu were observed in F. antipyretica, but the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were in R. aquatile. L. fluviatilis always contained the least amounts of heavy metals. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were lowest in L. fluviatilis and highest in F. antipyretica. Among the analyzed metals, plants accumulated the highest amount of Zn, and the least of Hg. The BCFs for Zn were from 24111 (in L. fluviatilis) to 97574 (in R. aquatile), and BCFs for Hg were from 29 (in L. fluviatilis) to 226 (in F. antipyretica).
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