This article aims to analyse the influence of weather types on meteorological conditions in Petuniabukta (Svalbard) during July and August of 2016. The paper analyses the daily courses of air temperature and humidity at four measurement points located on the west bank of Petuniabukta near Adam Mickiewicz University Polar Station during two different types of weather conditions: (i) cloudy and windy, (ii) calm and clear. These weather types, distinguished on the basis of wind speed and cloudiness, allowed for the creation of composite maps of the synoptic situation (SLP and geopotential height of 500 hPa distribution) and its anomalies. In the study area, the air temperature range in windy and cloudy weather conditions was larger (-10°C to 15°C) than that in sunny and calm weather (0°C to 15°C), which contrasts the range of humidity values. The diurnal cycle of meteorological elements in sunny and calm days is strongly related to the sun elevation angle. In the above-mentioned weather types, the air temperature was higher by several degrees (median 5°C to 8°C) than on windy and cloudy days (median about 0°C to 6°C) at each measurement point. On days with sunny and calm weather, a smaller vertical temperature gradient of air is observed (for sunny and calm days 0.63°C and for windy weather 0.8°C).
The objective of the study was to determine multi-annual changes and variability of occurrence of cold spells in summer and warm spells in winter on Spitsbergen in the period 1976–2016, and circulation conditions of their occurrence. Cold days in summer were defined as days with mean daily air temperature lower than temperature corresponding to the 10th percentile from daily temperature, and warm days in winter as days with mean daily air temperature exceeding the 90th percentile from daily air temperature. The research showed a statistically significant increase in mean air temperature, the rate of which in winter was more than four times higher than in summer. The observed warming translated into a decrease in the number of cold days in summer (-2.5 days/10 years in Svalbard Lufthavn and -1.3 days/10 years in Ny-Ålesund) and an increase in the number of warm days in winter (2.7 days/10 years in Svalbard Lufthavn and 2.4 days/10 years in Ny-Ålesund), and warm and cold spells related to the frequency of such days. The rate of the changes was higher in Svalbard Lufthavn than in Ny-Ålesund. The occurrence of cold days and cold spells was particularly related to the advection of air masses from the north-western sector. The occurrence of warm days and warm spells was related to the advection of air masses from the south-west.