Th e forearm is a body region of numerous anatomical variations. Due to its favorable anatomy fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle (FDS) is commonly used in tendon transfer surgeries. In this study a unique combination of abnormalities was found in a single forearm: the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle penetrated by the median nerve, one of the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis tendons early division and absence of the palmaris longus muscle. Described variation potentially may lead to the clinical manifestation of the median nerve compression and should be also considered during FDS surgery.
Increasing numbers of implanted cardiovascular electronic devices, results in a need for lead extractions, which has increased to an annual volume of over 10,000 worldwide. We present a cadaveric dissection body with a single chamber pacemaker implanted 5y before death.
A personal data referring to the scaphoid skull housed in the Department of Anatomy of the Jagiellonian University, Medical College was established thanks to reviewing 19th century literature performed by Dr. Sofi caru. We received information that the skull had belonged to an adult man who was a carpenter, born at Cracow. Th e original anthropometrical study of this skull was performed by prof. Kopernicki 19th century.
Telocyte (TC) is an interstitial cell type with a small cellular body and extremely long tentacle-like extensions. TCs were discovered a decade ago and have specific morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical and secretome profi les, electrophysiological properties, microRNA expression. Moreover, they are different in gene expression from other cells. TCs play an important role in plenty of processes. Apparently, they are involved in homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration, repair, embryogenesis, angiogenesis and even tumorigenesis. “Telocytes need the world”, was emphasized by Professor Popescu and it will be actual at any time. This review summarizes particular features of TCs in different organs and systems, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Introduction: Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. There are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocytes in all regions of the human uterus to explain their involvement in leiomyoma development. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from a healthy and myomatous uterus were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology and collagen deposits. Results: Telocytes were detected in the cervix, corpus of the uterus and leiomyoma. The density of telocytes in fibroid foci was reduced compared with normal myometrium. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the existence of telocytes in all parts of the human body affected and unaff ected by leiomyoma of the uterus. In addition, telocytes were also present in leiomyoma foci. Our results suggest that the reduced density of telocytes is important for the pathomechanisms of myometrial growth, demonstrating its value as a main component of the myomatous architecture.
O b j e c t i v e s: To evaluate the properties of natural sweetener solutions in whole organ preservation and assess their influence on the dimension, weight and shape of cardiac tissue samples in stated time intervals, up to a one-year period of observation. B a c k g r o u n d: Tissue fixation is essential for biological sample examination. Many negative toxic effects of formaldehyde-based fixatives have forced us to seek alternatives for formaldehyde based solutions. It has been demonstrated that natural sweeteners can preserve small tissue samples well and that these solutions can be used in histopathological processes. However, their ability to preserve whole human organs are unknown. M e t h o d s: A total of 30 swine hearts were investigated. Th ree study groups (n = 10 in each case) were formed and classifi ed on the type of fixative: (1) 10% formaldehyde phosphate-buffered solution (FPBS), (2) 10% alcohol-based honey solution (ABHS), (3) 10% water-based honey solution (WBHS). Samples were measured before fi xation and in the following time points: 24 hours, 72 hours, 168 hours, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. R e s u l t s: The WBHS failed to preserve heart samples and decomposition of tissues was observed one week after fixation. In half of the studied parameters, the ABHS had similar modifying tendencies as compared to FPBS. Th e overall condition of preserved tissue, weight, left ventricular wall thickness, right ventricular wall thickness and the diameter of the papillary muscle differed considerably. C o n c l u s i o n s: The ABHS may be used as an alternative fi xative for macroscopic studies of cardiac tissue, whereas the WBHS is not suited for tissue preservation.
To determine the role of the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin on various aspects of the functioning of the organism, the gland can be easily surgically removed in rats within 18 hours a fter birth. We performed pinealectomy in rats in a state of deep hypothermia under an operating microscope, using a micro-suction device of our own construction. The rats were induced into a state of suspended animation by placing them in the freezing compartment at minus 20 Celsius degrees. The cessation of respiration and heart beat lasted for about 15 minutes. During that time the pinealectomy was performed. In some cases there was minor hemorrhage that was easily controlled. There were no major side effects or mortality following surgery. All rats recovered within 15 minutes after the end of the procedure. The pinealectomy procedure described in this study is simple, rapid, effective and safe, and can be easily performed with instruments commonly available in most laboratories.
Autonomic nervous system of the pelvis is still poorly understood. Every year more and more pelvic procedures are carried out on patients suff ering from diff erent pelvic disorders what leads to numerous pelvic dysfunctions. Authors tried to review, starting from historical and clinical background, the most important reports on anatomy of the pelvic autonomic plexuses. We also pay attention to complete lack of knowledge of students of medicine on the autonomic nervous structures in the area studied. We present anatomical description of the pelvic plexuses including their visceral branches and anatomy of surrounding pelvic tissues which still remains unclear. More and more attention is paid to the topography of the plexuses specially because of new pain releasing techniques — neurolysies.