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Abstract

The aim of the research is to assess and discuss the diversity of energy production and consumption in European Union countries. The time scope covers the years 2007 and 2016. The diversity of EU countries was examined using the cluster analysis. The following diagnostic features were adopted for the analysis: energy dependency rate (in %), gross inland consumption of energy per 10,000 inhabitants (toe/10,000 inhabitants), primary production of energy (all products) per 10,000 inhabitants (toe/10,000 inhabitants), primary production of renewable energies per 10,000 inhabitants (toe/10,000 inhabitants), primary production of energy (without renewable energy) per 10,000 inhabitants (toe/10,000 inhabitants). Comparing the included indicators from 2016 to 2007 for all EU countries, an increase was recorded only for the primary production of renewable energies per 10,000 inhabitants,. Based on the cluster analysis, the examined countries were divided into six groups. According to the results of the research carried out, Northern and Eastern European countries are characterized by low energy dependence. However, according to the analysis carried out, this dependence is guaranteed based on various energy sources. The Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Finland) owe their high independence to the production of large amounts of energy from renewable sources. On the other hand, countries such as the Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia and the whole of Eastern Europe are based on primary energy sources such as: coal, oil and gas. Southern Europe countries (Greece, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Cyprus, Malta) are characterized by high energy dependence, as evidenced by low rates in the area of energy production, both in total and renewable and non-renewable energy production.
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