Urban regeneration is driven by many different engines. These engines, however, in some circumstances may appear to turn to either a success or failure factor. In this context, it is appropriate to analyse how factors that serve the regeneration process are affected by embedding research in a particular paradigm set by the theories of so called “regional development”. The choice of these concepts analysed in the article was the result of literature review. The article consists of four parts. The first part defines the development factors and shows how the concentration of negative phenomena in degraded areas may inhibit their optimal use in the context of the city as a whole. Two subsequent chapters analyse how major theories of regional development picture external and internal factors that influence the development of a specific territory. Then, in the summary the author discusses, how main urban and regional development theories reflect the rationale for mitigating barriers in using local development factors as real driving forces of urban regeneration.
Art. 52 sec. 1 of the Regeneration Act of 9 October 2015 allowed municipalities which, at the time of its entry into force, did not have a valid revitalization program, to carry out revitalization activities on the basis of a revitalization program other than the municipal revitalization program. The choice of procedure was left by the legislature of the municipality, assuming that at the initial stage of the implementation of the law, only the municipality should test its instrument, referring to the nature and scale of its needs. The ROP Managing Authority in Małopolska as the only one in the country introduced the requirement of developing municipal revitalization programs for all municipalities that did not have a current revitalization program at the time of the entry into force of the Act. Therefore, these municipalities, in order to benefi t from EU funding under ROP WM 2014-2020 for revitalization activities planned in the programs, were not able to rely on the derogation contained in art. 52 sec. 1 of the Act. Regardless of the size of the municipality and the nature of revitalization needs, they were compelled to develop a document complying with the statutory procedure, the fi rst stage being the delimitation of the degraded area and the revitalization area and confi rmation by the resolution of the municipality council. As a result Małopolskie Voivodeship has become Poland’s largest laboratory of methodology of delimitation of these areas and development of revitalization programs. The aim of the article is to present the diversity of applied methodological approaches to the delimitation of revitalization areas in Małopolskie Voivodeship and to describe the most noteworthy, as well as to indicate the most common errors in the designation of these areas.
This article presents the evolution of the approach to the indicative designation of revitalization areas in Poland at central, regional and local level. The introduction shows rational for monitoring of degradation in Polish cities, i.e. a continuous assessment of its condition, and not just the designation of areas where intervention is needed. Monitoring ensures the comparability of observations and allows to evaluate the results of undertaken measures. Without it, it is impossible to fully assess the effects of revitalization in the previous financial perspectives. The first chapter of the article outlines the requirements for determining areas for revitalization before 2013, the reasons for their adoption, and the indicators used in the delimitations at the time. The second chapter contains the results of a study carried out in the fi rst half of 2016 at the Institute of Urban Development concerning the designation of degraded areas and revitalization areas just after the entry into force of the revitalization law. The results of the study are conclusions confirming the use of cities, which first delimited the areas of revitalization from the possibility of individualizing the approach to the designation of those areas, which was introduced by the Guidelines and the law.