Due to the unrecognized effect of tigecycline (TIG) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the present study has been undertaken in order to determine whether the drug can affect these cells in respect of their counts, and the production of IFN-γ, IL-17 (pro-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokines), IL-4 (anti-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokine), IL-10 and TGF-β (anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines). Murine lymphocytes were treated with TIG for 48 and 96 h at concentrations reflecting its plasma levels obtained in vivo at therapeutic doses, and at 10-fold lower concentrations. It was found that TIG neither affected substantially the percentage and absolute counts of entire CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations nor influenced the Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory/suppressive T cell subset. Furthermore, the percentages of IL-4-, IL-10-, IL-17- and TGF-β-producing CD4+ T cells were not altered following the exposure to TIG. Similarly, TIG did not influence IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells. Thus, with respect to the parameters evaluated, TIG does not seem to exert immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects.
Detection of explosives vapors is an extremely difficult task. The sensitivity of currently constructed detectors is often insufficient. The paper presents a description of an explosive vapors concentrator that improves the detection limit of some explosives detectors. These detectors have been developed at the Institute of Optoelectronics. The concentrator is especially dedicated to operate with nitrogen oxide detectors. Preliminary measurements show that using the concentrator, the recorded amount of nitrogen dioxide released from a 0.5 ng sample of TNT increases by a factor of approx. 20. In the concentrator an induction heater is applied. Thanks to this and because of the miniaturization of the container with an adsorbing material (approx. 1 cm3), an extremely high rate of temperature growth is achieved (up to 500 °C within approx. 25 s). The concentration process is controlled by a microcontroller. Compact construction and battery power supply provide a possibility of using the concentrator as a portable device.
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of feed on the pharmacokinetics of flumequine (FLU) administered to broiler chickens as follows: directly into the crop (10 mg/kg of BW) of fasted (group I/control) and non-fasted chickens (group II), or administered continu- ously with drinking water (1 g/L for 72 h) and with unlimited access to feed (group III). Plasma concentration of FLU was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluo- rescence detection. In group II, a significant decrease in the maximum concentration (Cmax = 2.13±0.7 μg/mL) and the area under the concentration curve from zero to infinity (AUC0→∞ = 7.47±2.41 μg·h/mL) was noted as compared to the control group (Cmax = 4.11±1.68 μg/mL and AUC0→∞ = 18.17±6.85 μg·h/mL, respectively). In group III, the decrease in AUC was signifi- cant only in the first 3 hours (AUC0→3 = 5.02±1.34 μg·h/mL) as compared to the control group (AUC0→3 = 7.79±3.29 μg·h/mL). The results indicate that feed reduced the bioavailability of FLU from the gastrointestinal tract by at least 50% after the administration of a single oral dose. However, continuous administration of FLU with drinking water could compensate for the feed-induced decrease in absorption after single oral dose.