A hybrid artificial boundary condition (HABC) that combines the volume-based acoustic damping layer (ADL) and the local face-based characteristic boundary condition (CBC) is presented to enhance the absorption of acoustic waves near the computational boundaries. This method is applied to the prediction of aerodynamic noise from a circular cylinder immersed in uniform compressible viscous flow. Different ADLs are designed to assess their effectiveness whereby the effect of the mesh-stretch direction on wave absorption in the ADL is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) and FW-H acoustic analogy method are implemented to predict the far-field noise, and the sensitivities of each approach to the HABC are compared. In the LES computed propagation field of the fluctuation pressure and the frequency-domain results, the spurious reflections at edges are found to be significantly eliminated by the HABC through the effective dissipation of incident waves along the wave-front direction in the ADL. Thereby, the LES results are found to be in a good agreement with the acoustic pressure predicted using FW-H method, which is observed to be just affected slightly by reflected waves.
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the ability of spermatozoa to bind exoge- nous DNA and transfer it into oocytes by fertilization. However, SMGT is still undergoing opti- mization to improve its efficiency to produce transgenic animals. The acrosome reaction is neces- sary for spermatozoa to carry the exogenous DNA into oocytes. In this study, the effect of the acrosome reaction on the efficiency of spermatozoa carrying exogenous DNA was evalua- ted. The results showed that the efficiency of the acrosome reaction was significantly higher (p<0.05) after incubation with 50 μmol/L progesterone compared to incubation without proges- terone. It was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 20, 40, and 60 min of progesterone treatment groups than in the 0 min treatment group. The spermatozoa were further incubated with cyanine dye Cy5 labeled DNA (Cy5-DNA) for 30 min at 37°C, and positive fluorescence signals were detected after the acrosome reaction was induced by progesterone at concentrations of 0 and 50 μmol/L for 40 min. The percentage of positive Cy5-DNA signals in spermatozoa was 96.61±2.06% and 97.51±2.03% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respective- ly. The percentage of partial spermatozoa heads observed following combination with Cy5-DNA was 39.73±3.03% and 56.88±3.12% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respec- tively. The ratio of positively stained spermatozoa combined with exogenous DNA showed no reduction after the acrosome reaction. These results suggest that the acrosome reaction might not be the key factor affecting the efficiency of SMGT.
Osteocalcin is a major non-collagenous component of the bone extracellular matrix and is considered to be an indicative factor of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we detected osteocalcin expression in different antler areas and growth phases by immunohisto- chemistry. Osteocalcin was highly expressed in all areas during the mineralization period and in mesenchymal cell and chondrocyte areas during the rapid growth period. The nucleotide sequence of the osteocalcin gene in sika deer antler was determined. The open reading frame was 303 bp encoding a protein of 100 amino acids. The estimated molecular mass of osteocalcin was 10.38 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.37. The osteocalcin gene with a 6× His-tag at the C-terminus was cloned into the pGEX-4T1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli under optimal conditions. The recombinant soluble protein fused with GST was purified with Ni-NTA resin. The purified osteocalcin protein exhibited a significant increase in HA adhesion and promoted antler chondrocyte proliferation. Osteocalcin is an important factor in regulating the rapid growth and differentiation of deer antlers.
Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mold, the heat flow direction is vertically downward. At the upper wall of the mold, the heat flow direction is obliquely downward and deflects toward the mold, and at the lower wall of the mold, the heat flow deflects toward the alloy. There is a complex circular flow in the mold. Liquid alloy flows downward along the wall of the mold and flows upward in the center.
In order to compare the pathogenicity of different Tembusu virus (TMUV) strains from geese, ducks and chickens, 56 5-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings which were divided into 7 groups and infected intramuscularly with 7´105 PFU/ml per duck of six challenge virus stocks. The clinical signs, weight gain, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, virus loads in sera of 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 dpi and serum antibody titers were examined. The results showed that these viruses could make the young ducks sick, but the clinical signs differed with the different species-original strains. All the experimental groups lose markedly in weight gain compared to the control, but there were no obvious distinctions in weight gains, as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesions of dead ducks between the infected groups. However, the groups of waterfowl-derived strains (from geese and ducks) showed more serious clinical signs and higher relative expressions of virus loads in sera than those from chicken-derived. The mortality of waterfowl groups was 37.5%, and the greatest mortality of chicken groups was 12.5%. The serum antibodies of the geese-species group JS804 appeared earlier and were higher in the titers than others. Taken toghter, the pathogenicity of waterfowl-derived TMUV was more serious than chicken-derived TMUV and JS804 could be chosen as one TMUV vaccine strain to protect from the infection.
Based on the mould temperature measured by thermocouples during slab continuous casting, a difference of temperature thermograph is developed to detect slab cracks. In order to detect abnormal temperature region caused by longitudinal crack, the suspicious regions are extracted and divided by virtue of computer image processing algorithms, such as threshold segmentation, connected region judgement and boundary tracing. The abnormal regions are then determined and labeled with the eight connected component labeling algorithm. The boundary of abnormal region is also extracted to depict characteristics of longitudinal crack. Based on above researches, longitudinal crack with abnormal temperature region can be detected and is different from other abnormalities. Four samples of temperature drop are picked up to compare with longitudinal crack on the abnormal region formation, length, width, shape, et al. The results show that the abnormal region caused by longitudinal crack has a linear and vertical shape. The height of abnormal region is more than the width obviously. The ratio of height to width is usually larger than that of other temperature drop regions. This method provides a visual and easy way to detect longitudinal crack and other abnormities. Meanwhile it has a positive meaning to the intelligent and visual mould monitoring system of continuous casting.
Based on the theory of heat transfer, the influence of expansion joints on the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining is discussed. In view of the current expansion joint, the mathematical model of heat transfer and the three dimensional finite element model of ladle lining brick are established. By analyzing the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining brick when the expansion joints are in different sizes, the thermal mechanical stress caused by the severe temperature difference can be reduced by the suitable expansion joint of the lining brick during the ladle baking and working process. The analysis results showed that the thermal mechanical stress which is caused by thermal expansion can be released through the 2 mm expansion joint, which is set in the building process. So we can effectively reduce the thermal mechanical stress of the ladle lining, and there is no risk of steel leakage, thus the service life of ladle can be effectively prolonged.
In vitro embryogenic callus is a critical factor for genetic transformation of rice, especially for indica varieties. In this study, we investigated the relationship between polyamines, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and callus browning, and we studied the effect of exogenous Put on callus regeneration and on the content of endogenous polyamines. In addition, the expression levels of arginine decarboxylase gene (Adcl) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene (Samdc) in embryogenic callus were studied by quantitative Real-time PCR analysis. The results showed that the contents of endogenous Put and Spd in the browning callus were significantly lower than those in normal callus. Exogenous Put could effectively improve the growing state of callus of indica rice and enhance the development of embryogenic callus. The content of endogenous polyamines in embryogenic callus, especially Spd and Spm, was increased after addition of exogenous Put. Additionally, exogenous Put also had an obvious impact on the expression levels of Adcl but partial effect on the expression levels of Samdc gene. This study could increase the knowledge of both embryogenic callus induction and polyamine catabolism in callus in indica rice.
The friction and wear properties of 201HT aluminum alloys and the corresponding competitive coupons were tested on an electrohydraulic servo face friction and wear testing machine (MM-U10G). The microstructures of the competitive coupons were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and consequently the corresponding friction and wear mechanisms were studied. The results demonstrated that: (1) the best competitive material of friction and wear performance of the 201HT was the 201HTC. (2) the 201HTC modified by carbon following the initial mill for oil storage of the micro-groove to be produced, increased the corresponding lubrication performance reduced the friction coefficient and wear rate effectively. (3) the 201HT-201HTC could obtain both better friction and wear mainly due to the initial process of grinding following the 201HT plastic deformation occurred in the surface and the formation of a series of re-melting welding points, whereas the 201HT material hardness would be similar to the 201HTC material hardness, which led into the competitive material friction and wear performance improvement.