Ensuring the required quality of castings is an important part of the production process. The quality control should be carried out in a fast and accurate way. These requirements can be met by the use of an optical measuring system installed on the arm of an industrial robot. In the article a methodology for assessing the quality of robotic measurement system to control certain feature of the casting, based on the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility is presented. It was shown that industrial robots equipped with optical measuring systems have the accuracy allowing their use in the process of dimensional control of castings manufactured by lost-wax process, permanent-mould casting, and pressure die-casting.
This article presents the results of investigations of the effect of heat treatment temperature on the content of the carbide phase of HS3-1-2 and HS6-5-2 low-alloy high-speed steel. Analysis of the phase composition of carbides is carried out using the diffraction method. It is determined that with increasing austenitising temperature, the intensification of dissolution of M6C carbide increases. As a result, an increase in the grain size of the austenite and the amount of retained austenite causes a significant reduction in the hardness of hardened steel HS3-1-2 to be observed. The results of diffraction investigations showed that M7C3 carbides containing mainly Cr and Fe carbides and M6C carbides containing mainly Mo and W carbides are dissolved during austenitisation. During austenitisation of HS3-1-2 steel, the silicon is transferred from the matrix to carbides, thus replacing carbide-forming elements. An increase in a degree of tempering leads to intensification of carbide separation and this process reduce the grindability of tested steels.
This article discusses the issue of the preparation of the foundry moulds with the use of an industrial robot. The methodology is presented for the determination of the process capacity index for placing inserts with flat and cylindrical faces. On the basis of the relationships developed, the process capability indices were determined at various points in the workspace, which are characterised by different values of the repeatability positioning error. It was shown that the value of the process capacity index can be increased by the selection of a suitable location for the process of placing the inserts in the workspace. It should also be noted that the value of the process's capability index depends on the selection of the place in the robot workspace where the process is carried out. Implementation of the joining process at an analysed point in the robot workspace leads to an increase of the process capability index MCp for inserts with flat faces up to 1.1 (+4.5%) and for inserts with cylindrical faces up to 1.3. This results in an increase of 13% to a level corresponding to the global standard for process reliability (MCp = 1.33).
The work contains a description of a developed experimental and theoretical method of modeling of solid waste combustion in a device equipped with a moving grate and capability to optimize the work of waste incineration plant. Implementation of this issue was based on results of experimental studies made on a laboratory scale boiler. This was possible by defining and testing indicators of quantitative assessment of combustion such as: reaction front rate, ignition rate, the rate of combusted mass loss and the heat release rate. These indicators as measurable "criteria indicators" allow transfer of parameters from a laboratory-scale unit, working in the transient regime into an industrial full scale grate device working continuously in stable determined conditions. This allows for wide optimization possibilities in the operation of a waste incineration plant, in particular the combustion chamber, equipped with a moving grate system.
Calretinin (CR), a calcium-binding protein from EF-hand family, is localised in non-pyramidal GABA-ergic interneurons of the hippocampus. CR takes part in maintaining calcium binding homeostasis, which suggests its neuroprotective role. Hippocampal neurons contain membrane transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) which binds to capsaicin (CAP) contained in habanero pepper fruits. Few in vivo studies have revealed the effect of CAP on interneurons containing CR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CR immunoreac- tivity in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) in adult rats after intragastric admin- istration of the habanero pepper fruits. Wistar rats received a peanut oil – control group (C), and oil suspension of habanero pepper fruits at doses of 0.025 g dm/kg b.w. – group I and 0.08 g dm/kg b.w. – group II for 28 days. After euthanasia, the brains were collected and embedded in paraffin blocks using a routine histological tech- nique. Frontal hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for CR by using a peroxidase-antiper- oxidase method. CR immunoreactive (CR-IR) interneurons were morphologically and morphometrically ana- lyzed under a light microscope. The results showed similar shapes and distribution of cells in both areas of the brain in group C and I of animals. However, CR-IR interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and in DG were occasionally observed in the group II of rats. The results of morphometric studies did not reveal statistically significant differences in the surface area and shape index of cells between examined brain regions from groups I and II compared to group C. Only in group II of rats, an increase in the digital immunostaining intensity of CR-IR interneurons was found in DG. Low number of CR-IR interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and in the DG, under the influence of a large dose of habanero pepper fruits containing CAP, may be caused by the activation of TRPV1 receptors and the increase in Ca2+ ions in these cells. This phenomenon may ultimately lead to neuronal death and may disturb neuronal conduction.