Background: Unhealthy diet and cooking method used may infl uence the risk of breast cancer (BC), but there is only limited evidence with regard to benign breast disease (BBD). The aim of this study was to assess a relationship between cooking technique, especially fried to boiled meals ratio in the diet, and the risk of BC and BBD in a group of Polish women. Material and methods: A case-control study involving 34 BC cases, 81 BBD cases and 122 healthy controls was conducted between July 2007 and November 2011. All the women were asked about their nutritional habits, especially the way of preparing meat and fi sh dishes. Th en the ratio of fried to boiled meals was calculated. Results: High fried to boiled ratio was associated with increasing risk of BBD, but not BC. Women consuming fried dishes more oft en than boiled dishes had elevated risk of BBD: OR = 3.04 and OR = 3.65 for the second and the third tertile, respectively. Adjustment for the other confounders only slightly altered this relationship. Conclusion: Women who preferred frying as a cooking technique had increased risk of benign breast disease, but not breast cancer. Th ere is a need of more precise investigation to confi rm this association.