The work presents the results of experimental study on the possibilities of determining the source of an ultrasonic signal in two-dimensional space (distance, horizontal angle). During the research the team used a self-constructed linear array of MEMS microphones. Knowledge in the field of sonar systems was utilized to analyse and design a location system based on a microphone array. Using the above mentioned transducers and broadband ultrasound sources allows a quantitative comparison of estimation of the location of an ultrasonic wave source with the use of broadband modulated signals (modelled on bats' echolocation signals) to be performed. During the laboratory research the team used various signal processing algorithms, which made it possible to select an optimal processing strategy, where the sending signal is known.
This paper presents a solution that utilises ultrasonic technology to allow monitoring snow layer thickness or water level based on measurement from air. It describes the principle of operation of a measurement device using three methods of compensating for changing external factors affecting appliance’s precision. Block diagram of the device is also provided. In order to verify the proposed solutions, the research team tested the device in laboratory and operating conditions. The results obtained this way make it possible to select a configuration of device operation depending on the required measurement precision and limitations associated with installing the system for actual operation.
B a c k g r o u n d: Assessment of the neurocontrol of the external anal sphincter has long been restricted to investigating patients by invasive tools. Less invasive techniques have been regarded less uitable for diagnosis. O b j e c t iv e: The aim was to develop a surface electromyography-based algorithm to facilitate fecal incontinence diagnosis, and to assess its sensitivity and specificity. D e s i g n: Data analysis from a single center prospective study. P a t i e n t s: All patients from colorectal surgery office were considered. They underwent a structured interview, a general physical and proctologic examination. Patients with diagnosed fecal incontinence (Fecal Incontinence Severity Index >10) were included into the study group. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers that scored 5 or less and had negative history and physical exam. Both groups underwent the same tests (rectoscopy, anorectal manometry, transanal ultrasonography, multichannel surface electromyography and assessment of anal reflexes). M e t h o d s: EMG results were analyzed to find parameters that would facilitate fecal incontinence diagnosis. O u t c o m e m e a s u r e s: Sensitivity and specificity of surface electromyography, to diagnose fecal incontinence, were assessed. R e s u l t s: A total of 49 patients were included in the study group (mean age ± SD 58.9 ± 13.8). The control group (n = 49) gender matched the study group (mean age ± SD 45.4 ± 15.1). The constructed classification tree, based on surface electromyography results, correctly classified 97% of cases. The sensitivity and specificity of this classification tree, to diagnose FI, was 96% and 98% respectively. L i m i t a t i o n s: The age of women in the control group differs significantly from mean age of other groups. C o n c l u s i o n s: Surface electromyography is an good tool to facilitate diagnosing of fecal incontinence.