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Abstract

Varistors are commonly used elements which protect power supply networks against high-voltage surges or lightning. Therefore, quality and endurance of these elements is important to avoid losses when an expensive laboratory equipment would not be protected from random overvoltages. Additionally, excessive leakage currents generate serious costs due to high energy consumption. The paper presents shortly properties of varistors that comprized different ZnO grain types and can have various quality which changes continuously during exploitation (due to exposition to overheating and overvoltage pulses). Therefore, it is important to monitor varistors during their ageing (causing changes within their microstructures). A few methods of varistor property diagnosis were considered and compared with the methods currently applied in laboratory or industry applications. A new measurement (diagnostic) system that can monitor varistors during ageing and can be widely applied in power networks is presented. The proposed system fulfills requirements of the industrial customers which demand various methods for power line protection. The proposed system can be simply developed into a more advanced wireless diagnostic system of long power supply lines.
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Abstract

Specimens of Si single crystals with different crystal orientation [100] and [110] were studied by Electro-Ultrasonic Spectroscopy (EUS) and Resonant Ultrasonic Spectroscopy (RUS). A silicon single crystal is an anisotropic crystal, so its properties are different in different directions in the material relative to the crystal orientation. EUS is based on interaction of two signals: an electric AC signal and an ultrasonic signal, which are working on different frequencies. The ultrasonic wave affects the charge carriers' transport in the structures and the intermodulation electrical signal which is created due to the interaction between the ultrasonic wave and charge carriers, is proportional to the density of structural defects. RUS enables to measure natural frequencies of free elastic vibrations of a simply shaped specimen by scanning a selected frequency range including the appropriate resonances of the measured specimens.
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