At the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, the field of Arabic and Islamic studies became enriched by a number of multi-facetted scholarly theories challenging the traditional account on the early centuries of Islam. An author of one of them was the Israeli scholar Yehuda D. Nevo (1932–1992), working in archaeology, epigraphy and historiography. He devoted much of his career to the studying of Arabic rock inscriptions in the Negev desert, as well as to investigating literary and numismatic evidence of nascent Islam. In his theory, the gradual development of the Islamic faith, inspired by Abrahamism with an admixture of Judeo-Christianity, went through a stage of “indeterminate monotheism”. Not earlier than since the end of the second century A.H. one can speak of the formation of the dogmatic pillars of Islam, similar to those we know today. This paper is an attempt to sum up Nevo’s insightful input into the field of modern Islamic & Quranic studies today. Although controversial and unorthodox, many later researchers repeatedly refered to Nevo’s plenty of inspiring theses in their quest for facts on Islamic genesis lost in the maze of time and shifting memory of generations.
The paper presents a neutronic analysis of the battery-type 20 MWth high-temperature gas cooled reactor. The developed reactor model is based on the publicly available data being an ‘early design’ variant of the U-battery. The investigated core is a battery type small modular reactor, graphite moderated, uranium fueled, prismatic, helium cooled high-temperature gas cooled reactor with graphite reflector. The two core alternative designs were investigated. The first has a central reflector and 30×4 prismatic fuel blocks and the second has no central reflector and 37×4 blocks. The SERPENT Monte Carlo reactor physics computer code, with ENDF and JEFF nuclear data libraries, was applied. Several nuclear design static criticality calculations were performed and compared with available reference results. The analysis covered the single assembly models and full core simulations for two geometry models: homogenous and heterogenous (explicit). A sensitivity analysis of the reflector graphite density was performed. An acceptable agreement between calculations and reference design was obtained. All calculations were performed for the fresh core state.